What Relevance Does Feminist Theory Have In — страница 2

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geographers to realign the differing social positions of the sexes, caused by the importance placed on the ‘breadwinner’ by capitalist society , by increasing the image of women on a par with men. In addition to this, feminist geographers have also questioned supposedly ‘innate’ masculine or feminine characteristics, that are in fact socially rather than biologically constructed, since these have also affected the positions held by women in society and industry. The gender role theory specifically “examines the gender specific activities and forms of behavior which constitute the social roles accorded to women and men” (Foord and Gregson, 1986). These roles are manifested in assumed characteristics (women are assumed to be intuitive, passive and dextrous) that have

lead to the construction of inequalities since it is assumed that women would be unable to cope with jobs that demand leadership skills or toughness, missing qualities that have been used to justify unequal pay and few promotion opportunities. This misconception may also explain why some women have had to maintain their “dual role” within the public and private spheres (women’s place is still assumed to be the home) and also why so many of them are concentrated in certain low-skilled sectors of the economy. However, although some feminist geographers have used this gender role theory to demonstrate the constraints ideologies place on women, others have criticised its use. Foord and Gregson (1986) criticised the theory saying that it; isolates womens inequality (failing to

analyse the structures and processes that manifest themselves in male advantage and female disadvantage); identifies specific instances of womens inequality (which means that research is only done on the production and maintenance of womens inequality); and stresses women as victims (a negative characteristic that does nothing to further the feminist cause). Feminist geographers exploration down the path of teaching and analysis bias has led them to a discovery within geographic academia; not only are students being taught about ‘man’, the majority are also being taught by men (either teachers/lecturers or authors). In a study by Jane Connolly (1993), thirteen contemporary geography textbooks were examined in an attempt to establish whether or not a sexual bias existed. Her

results showed that there was a significant polarisation between authors, only 23 per cent being women, and a similar polarisation within illustrations, only 20 per cent depicting women. These results suggested that once again, only the male perspective was being read (and hence learnt) by students, whilst the textbooks used by teachers were actually reinforcing the inequalities faced by women (Williams, 1993). A similar study, this time focusing on employment within American Geography Departments, was carried out by David Lee in 1990. His results, from analysis of 1988-89 data, showed the inequalities faced by women within higher education; out of 2,059 individuals employed in some professional form by Geography Departments, only 200 were women (9.7 per cent of the total), the

remaining 1,859 being men (Lee, 1990). However, for an historical perspective Lee compared the sexual division of doctorates for two periods, finding that in the 1950s and 1960s the ratio was sixteen to one in favour of males, but by 1986-87 this ratio had reduced to three to one. This last set of data shows a considerable, although not total, improvement in opportunities awarded to women in the last few years that may be attributed to the efforts of the feminist movement and feminist geographers. Their partial success is paradoxically shown by Zelinsky (1973, cited Lee, 1990) who wrote before the feminist movement had gathered momentum; “By every objective measure that can be mustered, the lot of female geographers is, and always has been, a discouraging one; and there is

little assurance of substantial improvement during the foreseeable future”. Zelinsky’s negative (although realistic at the time) approach to womens future prospects, underlines the dramatic impact feminist geographers have had in pushing their cause for equality within their discipline and society. In short, the undisputed emergence of the feminist subdiscipline into academia is categorical evidence in itself that feministic geography is relevant. By introducing gender into an analysis of space, the feminists have gone some way towards making the study of geography all encompassing; at the same time diminishing some of societies ingrained inequalities.Bibliography Bondi, L (1990) “Feminism, Postmodernism and Geography: Space For Women?”, in Antipode 22(2) pp156-167 Foord,