Wed And Sustainable Development Essay Research Paper — страница 2

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have to be replaced by or reversed back to a more “complementary” arrangement (Peterson and Runyan 131). The more rigid, less equal division of labor has not completely undermined alternative notions of the work that men and women perform, but instead, has become a unitary, global, gendered division of labor, which is rooted in the patriarchal conceptions of the “natures” of men and women that are inextricably a part of the world capitalist system (131). The gendered dichotomies of production/reproduction, public/private, paid/unpaid, and breadwinner/housewife ideologically confine the roles of men and women into a division of labor that has detrimentally affected countries in the South and have caused the basic failure of many SAPS and other development programs.

Recognizing the Western model as inherently and structurally inappropriate for economic and sustainable development is a recommended start in designing a program for any country in the South. Additionally, it has been found that not only do women experience a relative and absolute deterioration of role and status vis-?-vis men through the development process, but they also do not automatically benefit from that process (Braidotti 78). This was the outcome when men were drawn into the modernizing agricultural sectors while women remained in subsistence farming with no access to credits, training, and technology (78). The designers of development programs most often ignored women’s major contribution of labor in agriculture and in other productive activities within the community

and household (78). Thus, any design would have to recognize the valuable knowledge and role of women while eschewing the rapid unsustainable development models of the North. Perhaps, a case study would be helpful in outlining a program that would dually empower and improve, and be useful in highlighting its difficulties. In Ghana, the dramatic environmental changes resulting from overcultivation, deforestation, and overgrazing, combined with the extreme changes in climate, will soon cause a severe shortage in resources (Davidson 80). The high cost of fossil fuels, the loss of forests, the damaged water resources, and rapid population increase have placed immense pressures on the women of Ghana, with the development of this country and its environmental degradation radically

transforming the domestic and occupational roles of women in Ghana in detrimental ways (80). For the women of Ghana, a sustainable development program that empowers and improves their economic well-being is very much needed and could save their country from economic and environmental ruin. An antipoverty approach with an emphasis on empowerment could be the best design of solving Ghana’s problems (Kardam 145-148). Empowerment is broadly defined as a women’s achievement in control over their lives by expanded choices, self-reliance, and internal strength (148). Specific policy recommendations that would follow would have to deal with ways to resolve the conflict between women’s productive and reproductive roles, addressing the Ghani women’s double burden of having to work

for income and provide for their families, and issues in need of resolution for the Ghani women, such as men’s share in the maintenance of family and women’s participation overall in the redefinition of gender relations and the meaning of development itself, would have to be analyzed (148). The move toward empowerment would involve the five-step process of welfare, access, conscientization, participation, and finally, control (Kardam 149). This is where the antipoverty aspect is combined in order to assist the move toward “control” by focusing on the many low-income women of Ghana and aim at increasing their employment and income-generating options that are less dependent on natural resources, like the forests (Kardam 145). Many of the women generate what little income

they can from the sale of raw material intensive activities such as smoked fish and charcoal (Davidson 73 & 80). Until “welfare” and “access” have been addressed through providing those women lacking the most fundamental human needs with food, shelter, clothing, and medical care, increasing literacy and education of all Ghani women, and providing upgraded technology to reduce the hours of work and degradation of natural resources, sustainable development will remain infeasible because they will continue with their current practices, which are highly unsustainable. Once the “conscientization” level has been reached, the possibility of change and significant improvement can be realized. With continual support of this proposed program, the Ghani women who gain