Watergate Essay Research Paper Watergate by Randall — страница 2

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administration officials and other people in the Nixon administration pleaded guilty or were found guilty of illegal acts (Time and Again 2). The term ?Watergate” came from the Watergate Hotel in Washington D. C. In addition to a hotel, the Watergate complex houses many business offices, one which was the headquarters for the Democratic National Committee. It was here that the great scandal got its very start (Farnsworth 1). In the early morning hours of June 17, 1972 a security guard at the Watergate Hotel called police about a robbery. Later, five men were arrested with evidence that linked them to the committee to re-elect the President (NARA,1). After the Watergate scandal had been uncovered, another group of illegal activities came to light. It was found that in 1971 a

group of White House officials commonly called the “Plumbers” had been doing whatever they deemed necessary to stop any leaks that were originating from the White House. A grand jury later indicted John Ehrlichman and Special Counsel, Charles Colson and others for the burglary and the break-in at the office of a psychiatrist to get damaging material on Daniel Ellsberg, the person that had published classified documents called the Pentagon Papers. It was also later discovered that the Nixon administration had received large sums of illegal campaign funds and used them to pay for political espionage and pay more than five hundred thousand dollars to the five men that burglarized the Watergate Hotel (Infopedia,1). In 1972 , White House officials also testified that the Nixon

administration had falsified documents to make it look as though John F Kennedy had been involved in the assassination of President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam, and that they had also written some documents accusing Senator Hubert H. Humphery of moral improprieties(Infopedia 2). After the Watergate burglars were linked to the committee to re-elect the President, official investigations were put into action. As more and more evidence pointed toward presidential involvement, the media became more confident and aggressive. Bob Woodard and Carl Bernstein two reporters from the Washington Post, were very instrumental in the development of teams of investigative reporters around the world. The term “Deep Throat” became a very common phrase for the anonymous official who leaked

valuable information to the reporters Woodard and Berstein(Farnsworth 6). Other leaders in the investigation were Judge Sirica, The Sam Ervin committee and special prosecuter Archibald Cox. Archibald Cox was sworn in as the special prosecutor in May 1973. As Cox and the Ervin Committee pushed the President for tapes that had been made in the White House, Richard Nixon ordered Attorney General Elloit L. Richardson to dismiss Cox as special prosecutor. On Oct 20, 1973 Elloit L. Richardson turned in his resignation, refusing to fire Cox. William Ruckeishaus, the deputy Attorney General also refused to dismiss Cox and was fired by Nixon. This turn of events came to be known as the “Saturday Night Massacre” and heightened the idea that the president was more involved than

previously thought (Grolier 1). Eventually Archibald Cox was dismissed as special prosecutor by the Solicitor-General Robert Bork(Farnsworth 4). Between May and October of 1973, during special Senate hearings, Alexander Butterfield disclosed to the senate committee that some White House tapes existed. Archibald Cox and the Senate Watergate Committee began their push to listen to the tapes. Nixon claimed “Executive Privilege” and refused to turn the tapes over for review (Farnsworth 4). The President, on April 30, did release some edited transcripts of Oval Office conversations. All the tapes had suspicious gaps. Not very satisfied with what they had received, Judge Sirica subpoenaed additional tapes. When Nixon refused to release the additional tapes the case went before the

Supreme Court. The court decision was that Nixon could withhold any tapes that was of concern to National Security, but insisted that Watergate was a criminal matter. This ruling later led to the case of UNITED STATES V. RICHARD NIXON (Grolier 1). On August 5,1974, Nixon than released three more tapes to the public. One of the tapes clearly revealed that he had taken many steps to stop the FBI’s investigation in the Watergate burglary. The tape also made it clear that the president had been actively involved in the cover-up from the very beginning(Grolier 1). The fight for the tapes started in the period between May and October of 1973 when Alexander Butterfield disclosed to senate hearings that the tapes existed. The tapes led to the firing and resignation of many people, and