Walt Disney Essay Research Paper Walter Elias — страница 2

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During the next five years, Walt completed such other full-length animated classics as Pinocchio, Dumbo, and Bambi. Disney started out first creating a series of rough sketches that often will be filmed in a pencil test to determine whether the desired motion has been achieved. If the pencil test is satisfactory, images are refined by removing excess lines. If the animation is to be completed this way, the animator will use sheets of acetate cels. His cartoon creations and style of cel animation (cleaned-up images are traced onto a cel by a person known as and inker) were used by many cartoonists. To save time and money, many large studios use a photocopy process, rather than hand inking, to transfer lines from the drawn original to the acetate cel. Later a painter will apply

vinyl paint colors onto the back of the cel. This cel animation later became the industry standard had changed the Cartoon Industry. There are many ways to create animation, depending on whether the materials used are flat (such as drawings, paintings, or cut-out pieces of paper) or dimensional (such as clay, puppets, household objects, or even people. In each case, an animator must keep in mind the basic principle of frames per second (the number of images needed to produce one second of film). Because sound film runs at twenty-four frames per second, a film animator must make twenty-four images for each second of animation that he or she wishes to create. Although many animation techniques have been used through the years with commercial success, the Disney style of animation,

known as full animation because it has constant movement and a high ratio of drawings per second of film, has had the strongest influence worldwide. During the mid-forties a successful alternate style of cel animation was introduced by another studio, United Productions of America (UPA). UPA was founded by Dave Hilberman, Zachary Schwartz, and Stephen Bosustow. They had all left Disney as a result of a strike in 1941. Interested in modern art and in addressing social issues, these artists were determined to create a new style of animation, both in form and content. Using simplified designs and stylized color, UPA made an impact on the world of advertising and the then-new field of television. UPA s technique of using fewer drawings in a more stylized way became known as limited

animation. In 1940, construction was completed on Disney s Burbank studio. The staff grew to more that 1,000 artists, animators, story men and technicians. During World War II, 94% of the Disney facilities were engaged in special government work, including the production of training and propaganda films for the armed services, as well as health films which are still shown throughout the world by the U. S. State Department. The remainder of his efforts were devoted to the production of comedy short subjects, deemed highly essential to civilian and military morale. Disney s 1945 feature, the musical The Three Caballeros , combined live action with cartoon medium, a process he used successfully in such other features as Song of the South and the highly acclaimed Mary Poppins. In all

81 features were released the studio during his lifetime. Walt s inquisitive mind and keen sense for education through entertainment resulted in the award-winning True-Life Adventure series. Through such films a The Living Desert, The Vanishing Prairie, The African Lion. and White Wilderness, Disney brought fascinating insights into the world of wild animals and taught the importance of conserving our nation s outdoor heritage. In 1954, the Disney company launched a popular weekly television series called Disneyland . The series ran under various other names, including The Wonderful World of Disney until 1990. This became the longest-running prime time series in television network history. Disneyland, launched in 1955 in a fabulous $17 million Magic Kingdom, soon increase its

investment tenfold. By its third decade, more than 250 million people were entertained, including presidents, kings and queens and royalty from all over the globe. A pioneer in the field of television programming, Disney began production in 1954, and was among the first to present full-color programming with his Wonderful World of Color in 1961. The Mickey Mouse Club and Zorro were popular favorites in the 1950 s. At about the time of Unfited Productions of America s debut, television was gaining prominence in American society. This led to the establishment of new animation studios by Jay Ward creator of the Bullwinkle series and the team of Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera creators of Yogi Bear (1961-1963), The Flinstones (1960-1966) and The Jetson s (1962-1988). UPA s method of