Внешняя разведка США

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Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Chapter 1 Introduction Exploration - a historical phenomenon. As craft, it is perhaps not the oldest, but surely the second. The variety of views of various historians on the social nature of intelligence and espionage combines them into one - they all agree on the fact that the secret services are at least 33 centuries. More precisely, they were born when the war began. In any military conflict, whether primitive slaughter or the Second World War, in varying degrees, of course, there is a tactical ruse, calculated to deceive the enemy. But in order to deceive and defeat the enemy, you need to know it. As a historical phenomenon, intelligence and espionage, as well as the war in different times takes different forms. Types and characters of

scouts and spies change their color depending on the social and political system which they serve. History piled century in his piggy bank. In place of one of the formations came others, and the time changed the very concept of the secret service, and with it the essence of military and state secrets. Transformed and society's attitude to those who devoted his life to a dangerous profession. On the one hand, Noah, they were regarded as heroes of the invisible front, on the other - as despicable mercenaries. For centuries the word "intelligence" has been shrouded in reverence and deep respect, and the word "spy" was uttered with contempt and disgust. In the explanatory dictionary by Vladimir Dal: "Spy - the spy, spy, hidden spy, and a carrier ... Spy - soglyadat, lazutnichat, pry,

listen, call that on the one hand, and send the opposite; serve as scout ... But Vladimir Dahl admits that "spying in wartime is allowed ... Chapter 2 History of the Foreign Intelligence Any State, as the organization of political power, as the unit of society, needs a mechanism which would protect it from encroachment on its sovereignty, integrity and power. The most important part of this mechanism is intelligence. Reconnaissance activities is to collect and analyze information about the alleged internal and external threats to the state and society, as well as in activities to prevent and eliminate these threats. History of U.S. foreign intelligence began during the Second World War. According to Kim Philby, to this "secret information from other countries come in limited

quantities as a result of" extraordinary "actions of American military attaches and diplomats." In New York in 1940 was British focal point for the security of American supplies to Britain. William Stephenson, head of the organization, gave the main force in persuading Americans of the need to create your own intelligence service. He attracted interest in this from President Roosevelt. In 1942 it established the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), headed by General Donovan. At this time, involving close cooperation with British intelligence. SSA was originally established as a research and analysis organization. Subsequently, it was to the same task to plan and carry out special operations. After the war, all parts of SSA, except the secret intelligence service and service

analysis, were dissolved. In 1945, the analytical units were transferred to the State Department, and the operational units - Ministry of War. In his address to Congress on Mar. 12, 1947, President Truman declared that the communists threaten U.S. security. Based on the draft General Donovan, Truman recommended the establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). It was openly functioning executive authority, although it lay as many duties of a secret nature. In August 1961, was established by Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). Its first director was appointed Lt. Gen. Joseph Carroll. The main task of this organization was to ensure maximum coordination and effectiveness of intelligence work carried out by the army, air force and navy. Chapter 3 Structure of the U.S.