Vitrue Ethics Essay Research Paper In an — страница 2

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“what the agent will allow himself to do and suffer in accordance with the conception that he has his own moral character,” (194). Therefore, what is right for anyone in the same circumstances is not necessarily right for me because what I have to take into account as well as the situation is the question, “what is worthy of me?”. Pincoffs states that the quandarist cannot ignore these personal considerations but by acknowledging them, the quandarist is forced to “shift the focus of ethics away from problematics and towards character: away from Hobbes and towards Aristotle,” (194). Pincoffs proves character is crucial in his analysis of rule based ethical theories. A modern ethical theorist would say that when deciding the correct thing to do, people look to find a

rule set of rules or a rule and exception because most people are “tied by some kind of logical necessity to the concept of rule abiding in thinking what is and is not correct,” (196) but Pincoffs claims even if this was so, “we would still have to let considerations or character in the back door.” (196). In order to do this you have to understand the different ways in which a rule might come to infringe upon a person. He makes an analogy to orders and commands. Commands tell us what to do or refrain from doing in such explicit terms that there is no or very little room for variation in which it is obeyed or disobeyed. Orders do not specifically tell us what to do as what to accomplish or at what we should aim for. General Commands and Orders apply to everyone and General

Standing Commands and Orders apply to everyone in recurrent situations. Rules are like general and standing commands and orders. They may allow no leeway in compliance or they may allow a great deal of leeway. Some moral rules are more like general standing orders than general standing commands. (i.e. “love they neighbor”) They say what is wanted but not a way to do it. Some moral rules are like commands (i.e. “never break promises”) consist of largely “specific injunctions and directions” (197). However, if we think of them as orders they allow more discretion; “they do not tell us exactly what to do so much as indicate what to struggle for in our own way,” (197). Pincoff notes that “since we are already moral beings with characters formed, they way in which I

will abide by an order–rule is not they same as the way in which you will,” One has to decide not only what rule governs the case but how to go about regarding it. Therefore considerations of character, “do enter in by the back door,” (197) even if “being moral is nothing but following a set of moral rules.” (197) Moral decisions need not be merely personal; it is often not relevance to the correctness of moral decision to take into account “what I am”, myself as a moral being. Understanding these consideration of worthiness leads us away from the typical examples of Quandary Ethics. One exhibits his character in doing such things as turning the other cheek and welcome the second mile to show the kind of man he is. Quandary Ethics “conceives of a quandary which

arises because I fall into a certain situation.” (198) The situation is in general terms, not referring to an individual with personal conceptions of what are and are not worthy deeds and attitudes and feelings worthy of him. One may fall into this situation in virtue of falling under a rule which would apply to any person or any person in a particular role. “The general situation is what gives rise to the quandary; and it is only by reference to the features of the situation that I may deliberate concerning what I should do, or justify my action.” (199) Pincoffs states reference to standards and ideals is essential and not an accidental feature of moral deliberation. What is not judged morally is the extent to which one abides by the rules (those which are like general

standing commands) which sets the minimal limits which anyone should observe in his conducts, even though it may be a necessary condition of his having any degree of moral worth that one should abide by such rules. Another problem with QE is that it identifies morality with conscientiousness. By starting from problems and their resolutions, and by confining the description of problematic situations to those features which a general description can be given, the whole question of morality of character is restricted to judgments concerning the conscientiousness of the agent. Contemporary moral philosopher make this claim to conscientiousness on the basis that there is a need for more complex rules and the consequent demand for some kind of individual. That is not just rule-abiding