Vidoe Games Essay Research Paper In recent — страница 3

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personality and aggressive affect. Aggression ratings were derived as total change in aggressiveness, measured before and after participation; they could be positive (more aggressiveness) or negative (less aggressiveness). A three way analyses of variance with two between factors (gender and level of aggression) and one within factor (type of aggression) determined that the only statistically significant differences were between levels of aggression. After playing the nonaggressive game both males and females experienced higher increased aggression levels, than after playing both the highly aggressive game. Most significantly, however, both males and females experienced the lowest aggression levels after playing the moderately aggressive game. The overall pattern then, is that

the moderately aggressive game substantially decreased feelings of aggression, whereas the highly aggressive game resulted in much less of an increase in aggression than would be expected. The greatest change occurred among the men who participated in the nonaggressive game, having a substantially increased level of aggressiveness. Of note is the fact that they had ranked considerately less aggressive prior to playing the game than both groups of men assigned to play the aggressive games. This emphasizes the fact that individual personality is just as important as the varying levels of aggressive content in video games. For example, Huesmann (1982) ! concluded that children who are exposed to the least violence may be the most aroused and most likely to act aggressively. In sum,

the hypotheses that a linear increase in aggressive affect would occur as a result of increasing aggressive content in video games was not supported by the findings of this study. Furthermore, individual personality differences may play a more important role than previously examined in these studies. DISCUSSION: The two studies presented in this paper explore the effects of video games on aggression in their own way. The first study served to analyze effects of video game playing on aggression, but as with any self-report questionnaire, there are many limitations imposed in this kind of research. Given these limitations however, the analysis proved to be informative and allowed video game players (and nonplayers) to express themselves and allowed for analysis of personality

characteristics (such as low frustration, etc.) Their self-evaluations regarding when they felt better playing video games (i.e. when they were tense) and the effect playing had on them (relaxing them,) demonstrate that there are positive effects from playing video games. The second study was demonstrated no significant differences in aggression, or aggression-related variables. The results did not support the hypotheses that playing video games with high aggressive content would lead to more aggression then playing a video game with low aggressive content. As mentioned before, it has been known for some time that watching televised violence sometimes leads children to mimic that violence in real life. It would then follow that watching violence in a video game would have the

same effect. The variable that is not taken into consideration however, is that simply watching televised violence, containing aggressive cues, does not allow for any interaction other than idly watching. In a video game, all that changes; players actually get to interact and aggress back within the confines of the game. This gives players the chance to be active participants and (unlike when watching TV,) to release the tension that may have been obtained by either watching the video game, or any pre-existing tension which might have driven the player to the arcade in the first place. Also, when something happens within the game itself that causes tension, the player focuses on the game, not on the world around him. The evidence provided in this paper disproves the notion that

video games have the power to increase postgame aggression, but a few factors still need to be examined. Subjects in the experiments did not have to pay to play the video games, and although not stated, the difficulty level did not appear to be excessively high. This is not always true in a video game parlor, where players actually spend earned money and often severe mental and physical efforts to attempt to survive the gamefield. Also, the games have radically changed over time. Initially the trend in video game machines was that an outsider (Alien, Spaceship, Monster, etc.) was the focus of the aggression. Within the last few years, there has been a steady increase in violence against human beings (often one-on-one,) as opposed to other creatures. Whereas this initially applied