Victorian Social Reform In Britain Essay Research — страница 6

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Webbs , Pember-Reeves, Black, Collet, et al raised the awareness of social ills in governmental circles. Chadwick`s ? Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain? lead to, amongst other things, the Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875 and its further amendments in 1890. Charles Booth `s discovery of so many old people in the workhouses, lead to his proposal of a state pension of five shillings per. week for men and women aged sixty-five. His concerted effort, and that of trade unions for state pensions, resulted in the Liberal government of 1906 incorporating the proposal into its platform, the result being The Old Age Pensions Act of 1908. The Rowntree study featured a wealth of statistical information on wages, conditions, food and nutrition,

health and housing, and he hoped that his conclusions would be incorporated into Liberal party policy. Lloyd George ` s rise to Chancellor of the Exchequer meant that Rowntree` s influence was felt in the Old Age Pension Act of 1908, and The National Insurance Act of 1911. ?Overall, by 1900, central government action on recognised social problems was greater than in 1870, but still slight in contrast with the magnitude of those problems and of the range of demands for action. .In the 1880s and 1890s there was an impressive number of official investigations. Royal Commission on Labour(1893-4) Housing of the Working Classes ( 1884-5) Aged Poor (1895) the Depression of Trade & Industry ( 1886) Sanitary Laws (1871) Factory Acts (1876) select committees on Distress from Want of

Employment (1895) National Provident Insurance (1885-7) Old Age Pensions (1896,1899) The Sweating System (1890) Poor Law Relief ( 1888) Artisans and Labourers Dwellings Improvements (1881) to name but a few. The results were unsubstantial, owing partly to continuing powerful opposition to government intervention.? (Thane 1996 p.42) However, even considering this list of investigations, sympathy for the poor did not lead to a desire for reforming action by the state, whose interference was strongly opposed. Fear of the growing Labour movement, as well as German military and economic rivalry accounted for the apparent new governmental paternalism, which was tempered by the cost of implementation, and orthodox ?laissez-faire? ideals. Ultimately, the reformer`s success was in the

raised awareness of the problem of poverty, but implementation proved to be a more gradual process, and thus success could be regarded as limited and long term. BIBLIOGRAPHYClementina Black (ed), ?Married Women`s Work? (London, Virago,1983) Friedrich Engels, ?The Condition of the Working Class In England ? (London, Lawrence & Wishart, 1984) Albert Fried. ?Charles Booth` s London? (London, Hutchinson, 1969) Richard. M. Elman, Jose Harris, ?Private Lives, Public Spirit: Britain 1870-1914? (London, Penguin Books, 1993) Gertrude Himmelfarb, ?The Idea of Poverty,England in the Early Industrial Age? (London, Faber & Faber, 1984) A McBriar, ?Fabian Socialism and British Politics? (Cambridge,Cambridge University Press, 1962) in Pat Thane ?Foundations of The Welfare State, 2nd

Edition? (London, Longman, 1996) Pat Thane, ?Foundations of The Welfare State, 2nd Edition? (London, Longman, 1996) 34c