Victorian England Essay Research Paper Economics of — страница 4

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production. They would also control wages and prices in an entire industry (Boardman 17). In 1890 the US fought against the growing power of industrial and railroad merges. The law named the Sherman Antitrust Act, stated that mergers which would hurt the people were illegal. It also said that commerce should not be united in one power. But at times the Sherman Antitrust Act only slowed town the merger and did not stop it (Boardman 18). Large businesses like the American Sugar Refining Company, the United States Steel Corporation and the American Tobacco Company spent most of their time fighting the act (Boardman 20). The progressives were fighting for control and regulation of the companies that where irresponsible for monstrosities. People where busy creating the new industrial

order in which they profited from. In 1902 during a coal strike a man by the name of George F. Baer, a railroad president, said that the laboring worker would be taken care of, “by the Christian men whom God, in his infinite wisdom, has given control of the property interests of the country” (Boardman 17). As products where mass-produced, the market was also expanding due to the growing population. The national income was rising. Advertising came to play a great role in the selling of products. This also convinced buyers that they needed these new innovations (Boardman 21). Most people showed off their riches. It could be that the family invested in, railroads, steel mills, and of course the stock market. Maybe someone owned a mill or worked on a large farm. However, the rich

came to live in New York and other cities during the 1900s. The dream was to get into society (Balkin 24). World’s expositions, quintessential Victorian artifacts, displayed this material world in unprecedented scale and scope. Between 1876 and 1916 nearly 100 million people visited a dozen major international expositions held in the United States. I use several fairs to summarize changes and continuities in American everyday experience. For example, Americans attending expositions at Philadelphia and San Francisco witnessed changes along a diverse cultural spectrum. In 1876 they favored soda water, patent medicines, and took multicourse noon meals; by 1915 they preferred white flour, cold cereal breakfasts, and fast food lunches. In the centennial’s Machinery Hall,

individual leather makers crafted horse saddles, completing one very two days; at the Panama-Pacific Exposition, industrial laborers working on an assembly line built a new ford every half hour. In 1893 electricity contended with steam as the dominant energy source only to be challenged by oil in 1915. Queen Anne houses yielded to California bungalows as the nation’s residential ideal. Perhaps most significant of these changes was a transformed middle-class culture, expanded by increasing bureaucratization, fueled by consumer abundance, promulgated by communications technology, and motivated to hold power without property and to maintain hegemony with education and expertise (Balkin 32). Bibliography Work Cited Altick, Richard D. Victorian People and ideas. New York: W.W.

Norton and company, 1973. Balkin, Richard. Victorian America. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1991. Boardman Jr., Fon W. America and the Progressive Era 1900-1917. New York: Boardman Publishing, 1970. Hofstadter, Richard. The Progressive Movement 1900-1915. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1963. “Victorian Era.” Victorian Information. http://lang.nagoya-u.ac.jp/matsuoka/victorian.html (February 12, 2000). Wohl, Anthony S. “Economics.” Victorian Website. http://landow.stg.brown.edu/victorian/economics/econov.html (March 2, 2000)