Victorian England Essay Research Paper Economics of — страница 3

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improve until 1897. Most Americans felt that the country was going to improve itself. As the new century started there was great feeling of a better industry (Boardman 21). The best example of modern technology in the late 1800s was the railroad. From 1870-1920 some of the most important confrontations had to do with the railroads, from the nationwide strikes of 1877 to boycotting the Pullman railroad because of the wage cuts, which led to an economic, national, political, and constitutional crisis (Balkin 26). Economics in the US was changing quickly after the close of the Civil War. Year by year change grew faster. In 1894 the US was ranked number one in the value of its manufacturing products. In the 1890s the value of manufacturing products was twice the value of the

agricultural products, which were produced. Another change was the way business was run and managed. The one man owned companies were no more. In order to have a successful company there had to be many partners (Boardman 16). The industry was now focused on mass production. Some of the important developments were the manufacturing of firearms with interchangeable parts, grain milling, iron foundyring, can making, steel production, and bicycles. The Ford Motor Company was the first to introduce the chain-driven assembly line. They came up with this from past ideas (Balkin 58). Industrial workers did not own their own tools. The factory owners incorporated more advanced tools to limit the need for human labor and to send out their products faster. This made the product cheaper and

allowed the workingman to afford one. The workers did not like the machines because it was compromising their jobs. However, companies where making more money and products were being produced faster (Balkin 57). Wages were low and laborers had to work for long hours. In 1890 the average work week was sixty hours. The ten-hour day was a regular thing for workers. In the steel mills many men worked twelve-hour days and seven-day weeks. At the time workers with trades made about $4 a day. But unskilled workers only made about $1.50 a day. Girls could hold down clerk jobs in stores and make $5 to $6 a week, only professionals made $18 a week. The average annual earning of a worker was $490, excluding farm laborers (Boardman 21). The first Worker-Management Confrontations started in

the fields of agriculture and mining. By this time there was a new working class, which was getting bigger. The working force was one third of the population and one third of that was made up of immigrants. The unskilled work force was mainly immigrants. They migrated from there mother countries to the United States in a search for a better life. In 1877 the average immigrant made an annual amount of $506, in 1893 it was $544, and in 1909 it was $660. These immigrants lived in poverty due to the insufficient pay. Because of the low pay children where forced to work, in order for there families to survive. Also, the depressions and recessions were at fault for 23 to 30 percent of the workers that were laid off (Balkin 32). The Mill another major employer, was completely different

from an industrial plant. The mill first was introduced in the early 1900s. The United States Steel complex was a perfect example. It employed 9,000 workers and gave them a place to live. Another example was the Ford Plant at Highland Park, Michigan where they employed 16,000 workers. Not only did it house the workers, but it also had its own railroad station, a water supply, energy source, telephones, fire departments, and its own police force. This revolutionized the workplace (Balkin 34). At this time the preferred method of organization was the corporate one. The large amounts of capital where sold to different people. They would sell the stocks and bonds to the public and in return people would have a peace of the company. At times bankers and financers had a bigger say due

to the amount of stock they owned (Boardman 16). Each individual or group that controlled a company gave its stocks to a board of trusties. In return they were given trust certificates. The trustees then would make meetings and vote on what would be done in the company. This was not good because it killed competition and the public would have to rely on the trusts. The courts did not like this and they had to expand the people involved. Because of this new form of business ordinary people could buy stocks and have a say in the company (Boardman 18). Individual companies and factories started to merge and create bigger companies. This was good for stockholders because they had more power in the company. However, the mergers would create one organization, which would control