Victorian England Essay Research Paper Economics of — страница 2

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and fought for their rights through politics. They went straight to the state and federal government. The employers on the other hand did all they could to destroy the groups of people, using either the government or the courts (Boardman 12). Problems between the workers and the companies persisted. There was a brief fear of a civil war. These confrontations gave the state power to keep things under control. During 1887 there were bloody railroad strikes, which resulted in the government coming in and keeping the situation under control. What is now called the “National Guard” was called in for the matter. During this era, public and government police forces, militias, and detective agencies made themselves known (Balkin 19). Industrial capitalism’s quest for regularity and

standardization in the workplace, an environment that times both men and machines, had a long American history, dating at least to Benjamin Franklin’s belief in his Advice to a Young Tradesman that ‘Time Is Money’ (Balkin 18). “In the simplest terms, capitalism can be defined as the condition of possessing capital,” of having money to invest for financial gain. The term capitalism also expresses favoritism to capitalists, who are individuals who gather capital. They then allow others to invest and the company becomes an industrial enterprise (Wohl 1). In the Victorian Era, for the first time in history, industry became more important than agriculture. Companies became more dependent on machines than workers. Most enterprises were partly owned by the same people or

trusts. By 1900 there was 185 large combinations of companies. The same people owned one third of all companies (Boardman 16). Farmers from the West and South felt that they were losing their status economically and socially. The farmers felt that their trouble was due to the bankers and railroads. They could not borrow money from the banks because the interest was high. The problem with the railroads was that they were charging too much for the transportation of the farmer’s products (Boardman 21). The US was entering into a new century with many changes. Even though it looked exciting the economy had flaws, and the class system was complex. With the new immigration boom in the US, everything was changing. Now the lower class was made up of the immigrants who lived in poverty

in the large cities. It also consisted of factory workers who had no land. The upper class now had new rich people who had made their money investing (Boardman 20). The outlook of the country was not good because of the agricultural depression that began in 1873 and just lasted. The farmers were not producing as usual due to the machines that didn’t harvest the crops probably. The crops from New Zealand and Australia increased because of the refrigerator ships, which brought meat to the US. Economy and agriculture was no longer balanced. Because of all these things, the landowners had no other choice but to give up their political power (Boardman 16). Even though there were a lot of crops, there were not a lot of farmers. Because of industrialization, farmers were leaving their

farms for other occupations. There was also a depression going on at the time. Agricultural prices went down and did not come up until after 1910. Wheat prices declined three-quarters and corn went down two-quarters. Poverty was seen in farmers and sharecroppers. At the same time other things happened like droughts, soil erosion, plaques of grasshoppers, floods, and boll weevils. This devastated the farmers and the countryside. Even though the farm jobs rose, the non-farm jobs were more popular and prosperous. By 1870 farmers were the minority work force in the country (Balkin 23). Times were really bad due to the economic depression. Factories were closing and people were getting laid off. However, there were lucky people who kept their jobs but worked fewer hours. The harvests

were not doing well. Cholera reappeared in some towns. When all else was not working, the government turned to Chartism to find new ways of overcoming the depression (Boardman 21). From the 1830s to 1848 there was a general rubric, which was named Chartism. It recorded all the working class protest movements for the People’s Charter, published in England in May 1838. Shortly after Chartism became popular among the major political movements proposed in the 1839 pamphlets. They expressed their unhappiness over the way the working class had no say. Because of the fear of a revolution people realized that economic ties were not the right way to run a government (Carlyle 1). The middle years of the 1890s was a time of depression. The conditions of the business depression didn’t