VALUES EDUCATION Essay Research Paper PREFACEThe moral — страница 2

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structural capacities, the factors in the environment and experiences that lead to moral development. ________________________________________________________________________ INNATE STRUCTURE STAGE 1 Experience “ME ALONE”Accommodation/But I need others for many things reward/punishmentFeedback Adaptation STAGE 2 Ex “ME FIRST”But I need more physical things; I need I give you favors, and I expect youacceptance to give back in returnAcc/Fb Ad STAGE 3 Ex “GOOD BOY/NICE GIRL”But there are conflicting claims of meeting expectations and winningdifferent groups acceptanceAcc/Fb Ad STAGE 4 Ex “LAW AND ORDER”But is the law always morally right? - law/rules duty; doing my share in- can the rules always respond to all societysituations that may arise? - systematized: larger

group as a(Acc/Fb)- are institutions always faithful to social system original inspiration and responsive to the need for change? STAGE 5 Ex “SOCIAL CONTRACT”But is the majority always right? - democracy/change/adaptation by(Acc/Fb)- what criteria can be used for formu- majority lating right and wrong in society? - rational open discussion for majority consensus STAGE 6 “UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES” - the right = personal conscience guided by fundamental values always and universally valid because of their intrinsic worth. - criterion: what respects dignity and rights of the human person - JUSTICE = the end-goal of moral development The early yeas in life are characterized by a behavior motivated by the “ME ALONE” or “ME FIRST” attitude. In a later stage in life or in

the intermediate grades, one’s actions maybe motivated by the Good Boy/Nice Girl, meaning one does what brings appreciation or approval from others and doing away with actions that bring disapproval or reprimand from others. A maturing moral and spiritual self is slowly observed in the “LAW and ORDER” stage. The individual bases his action on what is considered right or wrong in the family, school, community, country or in the world. He tries to do his share in society. But sometimes the laws are not anymore sufficient to be the measure of what is right or wrong. This is because there can be a wide range of choices to be made. To choose the best action takes a higher basis for choice, more than laws or regulations. A truly matured individual reaches the stage of

“Universal Principles” upon which to anchor his decision, choices and actions. The right, now is based on a personal conscience which is guided by fundamental values. These values are good in themselves especially because they lead a person to what God, Allah and the Supreme Being teach so that he develops into what he should become. A person’s life as intended by God is to have a dignity of a human being. The criteria or the measure of what is fundamentally a universal value is whether it respects the dignity and rights of human person. The end goal of moral and spiritual development is justice. Justice means reaching a point where respect is given as well as sufficient for everyone in all aspects of life. DISCUSSIONS 1. Enumerate some behaviors you have observed that

points to a person who is in the following stages: a. Me alone b. Me First c. Good Boy/Nice Girl 2. Why is Law/Order Stage not enough to guide the spiritual or moral decisions of a person? 3. Why is the social contract limited as a source of guide to one’s choices and actions? 4. Which of these steps would you choose as your guide for your attitudes and behavior? Why? 5. Cite people who have reached Stage 6 in their moral and spiritual development. Give reasons why you have chosen them. ACTIVITY Read: THE SHORTEST WAY by Bro. Jun Estrella, FSC One day, a rich young man went to a remote Temple and presented to the Master his concern. “Although we are rich, and I do not have to work, I am still disillusioned with life and wish to attain enlightenment to be freed from these

sufferings. But I have no capacity for sticking long at anything except playing chess. Is there any short way for people like me?” “There is,” said the Master, “if you are really determined. The Master then called a certain monk to bring a chessboard and men. The monk came with the board and the Master setup the men. “Oh monk,” said the Master, “you have vowed obedience to me as your Master, and now I require it of you. You will play a game of chess with this youth, and if you lose I shall cut off your head. If you win I shall cut off the head of this young man.” They looked at the Master’s face and saw that he meant it: He would cut off the head of the loser. They began to play. With opening moves, the youth was already sweating as he played for his life. The