Uzbekistan-U. S. Economic Relations Problems and Perspectives — страница 6

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aid is distributed among various programs. The Uzbekistan assistance program focuses on micro-credit and agribusiness development, health and education reform, democracy, human rights, and community development. Security, nonproliferation, and law enforcement programs address narcotics smuggling, improved treatment of suspects and detainees, trafficking in persons and weapons, and the proliferation of nuclear and biological materials and expertise. The Secretary of State’s decision not to make the determination required for assistance to the central Government of Uzbekistan by section 568(a) of the Fiscal Year 2004 Foreign Operations Assistance Act affected a range of security assistance programs, including but not limited to Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and International

Military Education and Training (IMET) programs using FY 2004 funding. The estimated $50.6 million budgeted by all U.S. Government agencies for assistance programs in Uzbekistan in Fiscal Year 2004 is allocated roughly as follows based on information available as of the date of this fact sheet: Democracy Programs $15.7 million Economic and Social Reform $21.2 million Security & Law Enforcement $10.7 million Humanitarian Assistance $2.0 million Cross Sectoral Initiatives $1.0 million Democracy programs in Uzbekistan focus on strengthening the institutions of civil society, supporting human rights, and addressing the problem of torture. Civil society centers provide training, grants, and technical assistance to indigenous non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The program

supports human rights through training, grants, resource centers throughout the country, and a growing dialogue between officials of the Government of Uzbekistan and human rights defenders. Funding also supports a judicial reform program, a human rights law clinic, several legal assistance centers, training for legal professionals, and development of law school curricula. U.S. Government assistance seeks to improve citizen participation and transparency through community development, housing associations, and civic advocacy. Community development programs mobilize stakeholders to improve social conditions through small-scale infrastructure projects such as rehabilitating schools or irrigation canals. Print and broadcast media programs seek to strengthen independent media outlets.

Anti-trafficking in persons programs are carried out in close cooperation with the Government of Uzbekistan and focus on public awareness, law enforcement education, identification and protection of victims, and prosecution of perpetrators. Training and exchange programs reach out to the next generation of Uzbek leaders and give them first-hand experience with the day-to-day functioning of a market-based, democratic system. Last year, the U.S. Government sent over 475 Uzbek citizens to the U.S. on academic and professional exchange programs. Since 1993, the U.S. Government has funded the travel of over 2,900 Uzbek citizens to the U.S. on these programs. The U.S. Government also promotes access to information through programs like the Internet Access and Training Program. In an

effort to counteract the deterioration of the basic education system, a new program trains teachers in interactive teaching methods and in integrating critical thinking and learning techniques into curricula and teaching materials. Other program goals include increasing parent and community involvement, strengthening school administration, and improving school infrastructure. The U.S. Government is developing models of primary health care that emphasize essential care to families at the community level. Infectious disease programs are fighting the spread of Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis B. A maternal-child health program works to improve pre- and post-natal health care for mothers and newborns. A drug prevention program targets vulnerable groups with information and

counseling on the dangers of drug use and abuse. Market reform assistance focuses on small and medium enterprise (SMEs) development, microfinance, credit union development, and agribusiness development. U.S. assistance helps the Government of Uzbekistan reach its goal of accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). A new water user’s association project will focus on increasing community participation in efficient water use and irrigation management systems. Using FY 2003 funds, the U.S. Government provided a grant to the Uzbek Agency for Communications and Information for technical assistance to implement an E-Government plan and taxation pilot project. The grant will allow the Government of Uzbekistan to further its goals of greater online communication between government