Uzbekistan-U. S. Economic Relations Problems and Perspectives — страница 4

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4.6 Kyrghizstan 50.9 1.6 76.4 2.3 Other 45.2 1.3 22.5 0.8 Non-FSU Countries 2092.5 64.1 2147.8 65.8 Switzerland 272.3 8.3 200.7 6.1 Korea 106.4 3.3 137.1 4.2 Turkey 99.4 3.0 81.4 2.5 China 22.4 0.7 14.9 0.5 Germany 36.5 1.1 38.6 1.2 Great Britain 236.1 7.2 205.5 6.3 Netherlands 84.6 2.6 75.4 2.3 The USA 51.2 1.6 91.0 2.8 Italy 70.8 2.2 49.4 1.5 Other non-FSU countries 1112.8 34.1 1253.8 38.4 Source: Ministry of Macroeconomics and Statistics Uzbekistan- U. S. Economic Relations Main export and import items between Uzbekistan and the USA (2001) Table 10 Major Imports (mln U$) Grain (17.7) Meat and by-products (5.3) Machinery and equipment (82.3) Transport equipment (6.5) Major Exports (mln U$) Cotton fiber (36.8) Services (17) Non-ferrous metals (0.1) Food products (0.3) The United

States recognized Uzbekistan’s independence in December 1991. In 1992, various of United States aid programs were launched. Operation Provide Hope delivered an estimated US$6 million of food and medical supplies for emergency relief of civilians affected by the Tajik civil war; the Peace Corps sent its first group of about fifty volunteers to Uzbekistan; an agreement with the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) began encouraging United States private investment in Uzbekistan by providing direct loans and loan guarantees and helping to match projects with potential investors; and humanitarian and technical assistance began to move to a wide range of recipients. In 1993 the United States granted Uzbekistan most-favored-nation trade status, which went into force in

January 1994. In March 1994, a bilateral assistance agreement and an open lands agreement were signed. In 1995 a variety of investment and other treaties were under discussion, and several United States non-governmental organizations were initiating joint projects throughout Uzbekistan. In the first two years of Uzbekistan's independence, the United States provided roughly US$17 million in humanitarian assistance andUS$13 million in technical assistance. For a time, continued human rights violations in Uzbekistan led to significant restrictions in the bilateral relationship, and Uzbekistan received significantly less United States assistance than many of the other former Soviet republics. Because Uzbekistan was slow to adopt fundamental economic reforms, nonhumanitarian United

States assistance was largely restricted to programs that support the building of democratic institutions and market reform. By the end of 1995, however, United States-Uzbekistan relations were improving, and significantly more bilateral economic activity was expected in 1996 (U.S. Department of State, 2004). Major Issues in Uzbekistan- U. S. Economic Relations Aral Sea Crisis The former Soviet Union, in an effort to become self-sufficient in cotton, diverted tributaries of the Aral Sea, Amu Daria and Sir Daria, for massive irrigation of cotton fields throughout then-Uzbek SSR. The result has been environmental devastation: since 1960, the sea level has dropped 50%. Residents of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan are paying the price, as winds whip tons of contaminated dust from the dry

seabed into the air, leading to respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, and some of the highest rates of tuberculosis in the former Soviet Union. Besides health problems, Aral Sea disaster has made hundreds of acres of agricultural land unfit for use. If the issue shall not be resolved in the nearest future, the Aral Sea disaster’s impact on Uzbek economy will be devastating. The USA could have extended long-term, substantial credit lines for Uzbekistan to implement major projects to solve the Aral Sea problem, but that did not take place to the date. American involvement with the Aral Sea problem remains at superficial level - mainly through some international organizations. How does the current situation in Afghanistan affect Uzbekistan’s economy Fight Against

Terrorism: Soft Ways Militant Islamic groups, such as Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU), have been causing problems in Uzbekistan long before the USA faced Taliban of Afghanistan. In fact, removal of Taliban regime had been a blowing impact towards IMU as well, since they lost many fighters and training centers in Afghanistan. Besides the current military presence in the South of Uzbekistan, namely in Khanabad Military Base of Karshi region, the United States has been actively using and teaching “soft” ways of combating terrorism, such as economic development in the region. Ferghana Valley of Uzbekistan has been the most volatile region in the entire Central Asia. Below is an excerpt from Beth Jones, Beth Jones, Assistant Secretary for European and Eurasian Affairs: In