Use Of Black Holes In Space Transit

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Use Of Black Holes In Space Transit System Essay, Research Paper I. Introduction 1. Theory of Black Holes Black holes are one of the least understood phenomenons in the galaxy yet the secrets contained within the black hole could revolutionize the field of physics. Black holes are formed when an enormously massive star, most likely a neutron star, collapses in on itself. This happens because when the star dies all the energy generated from the sun s fusion reaction that was formerly pushing outward suddenly stops. When the outward force stops, the sun has so much mass that its own gravity collapses the star into a black hole. This only happens naturally with extremely massive stars because it needs enough force pulling inwards from the gravity to break the strong and weak

forces in an atom. The mass can then compress to less than a millionth of its previous size because most of the space in an atom or molecule is empty. When this happens a singularity is formed, this is the incredible massive center of a black hole. 2. Schwarzschild Radius When a star collapses its mass determines what radius the black hole will have. This radius called the Schwarzschild radius and is given by: r=2GM/c2 (O Neill, 138) Where r is the Schwarzschild radius, G is the gravity on the surface of the star, M is the mass of the star, and c is the speed of light. As particles approach this radius they are accelerated toward the speed of light. Because of this phenomenon, even light that gets caught in the gravitational spiral of a black hole cannot escape. 3. Time Dilation

This leads us into the idea of time dilation, the phenomenon that time appears to slow down as one approaches the speed of light in the outer spiral of a black hole. Relativity gives that as any object gets closer to the speed of light, time in their field of reference is the same but to anyone moving slower than them, their time appears to grow infinitely slow. That is, if a person where to go toward a black hole, when they entered the spiral particle cloud surrounding a black hole it would appear to a person on earth as if they were stopped. In fact, a person on earth would never see that person reach to center of a black hole because the light that would be required to see him would itself never be able to escape the black hole. If the light were never able to leave the black

hole you could never see him enter the black hole. This phenomenon would not last forever though, because black holes evaporate because of mass lost through a process to be discussed in part 4. Therefore the person standing on earth would see the person flying into the black hole actually enter the black hole a faction of a second before the black hole finally evaporated. At which point it is unknown what might happen, when the final remaining energy would explode or if all the energy would be expended and the black hole would vanish. 4. Kerr Black Hole It is important now to distinguish between two types of Black Holes, non-rotating black holes and rotating Kerr Black Holes. Kerr Black Holes are the only type to be considered in this paper as they offer different properties and

opportunities for energy collection than the basic non-rotating Black Hole. A Kerr Black Hole has a Schwarzschild radius encompassed by a rotating spiral of matter and energy destined to enter the black hole. Black Holes can rotate at varying velocities and as the rotational velocity increases the spiral becomes more violent and the Schwarzschild radius disappears into a type of funnel, which leads to the singularity. This is a very complex idea in that this funnel does not occupy any area in normal space, it is in fact a point where space bends around the black hole, creating a pocket in space accessible only through the black hole. It is my theory that a black hole with this property could become linked with its opposite, a white hole and this would create a wormhole. Therefore