Us Involvement In The Vietnam War Essay — страница 2

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the Tonkin Gulf incident which let the president “take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the U.S. and to prevent further aggression” (qtd. in Detzer 75). The Tonkin Gulf Resolution pulled the U.S. further into the Vietnam War. In February 1965 the ARVN was dissolving because of the Vietcong’s spring offensive and Saigon probably would have soon fallen if the U.S. did not send in combat troops (Detzer 104). The U.S. had over 20,000 American soldiers, most military advisers, stationed in Vietnam by March 1965 (Detzer 85). In March 1965, Rolling Thunder, a program of regular bombings on North Vietnam, began and continued for three years (Detzer 86). According to the Pentagon, more than twice the bomb tonnage dropped on Japan and Germany in

Word War II was dropped on Laos’ jungles by the end of the war (Detzer 82). By the end of 1966 there were already 383,000 American troops in Vietnam, with another 42,000 scheduled to be deployed by mid-1967 (Dougan 88). In 1968, at its peak, about 540,000 troops were in Vietnam. Since there were so many people in Vietnam, there were also a lot of deaths. 5,000 Americans were killed in Vietnam in 1966, 9,000 in 1967, 14,314 in 1968, 9,414 in 1969, 4,211 in 1970, 1,380 in 1971, and 312 in 1972 (Detzer 150-152). By the end of the war over 58,000 Americans were killed. The return of dead Americans from Vietnam began to make Americans question “Why?” (Dougan 90). American protests made the government realize they should start to let the Vietnamese fight their own war. This

process was called Vietnamization of the war. The U.S. gradually started to pull out in January 1969 (Detzer 124). Nixon withdrew 25,000 troops that year (Detzer 151). During the late spring and summer of 1969, the 1st Infantry Division “devoted an ever-growing share of its time, energy, and resources to the task of preparing the ARVN for the eventual departure of U.S. combat troops” (Casey 24). The 1st Infantry Division “began to send out mixed ambush patrols, to man its fire support bases with ARVN as well as U.S. troops, and to establish combined tactical operation centers throughout its area of responsibility” (Casey 24). By 1970 vietnamizing the war was a priority of the 1st Infantry Division (Casey 25). The 199th Brigade “organized a ten-man Mobile Training Team

to instruct ARVN officers and soldiers in skills ranging from simple weapon maintenance to air mobile tactics, convoy counter ambush techniques, land navigation, and demolition” (Casey 118). When ARVN soldiers were used to control areas American troops had just won, many couldn’t and American troops would have to fight for the same ground again and again (Detzer 104-05). “Battalions instituted training programs for Regional and Popular Force units under such acronyms as HUT (Hamlet Upgrading Team), LIFT (Local Improvement of Forces Team), and SAM (Stamina Accuracy and Marksmanship)” (Casey 118). In 1971, American combat units left after fighting their last battles and Nixon ordered the U.S. to assume only a defensive role (Detzer 136,151). On January 27,1973, Le Duc Tho,

representative of North Vietnam, Nguyen Van Thieu, representative of South Vietnam, and Nixon signed the Paris Accords (Detzer 136-37). In the Paris Accords Nixon agreed t increase aid to the ARVN and to respond with massive military retaliation if North Vietnam launches a new offensive (Detzer 136-37). In 1975, more than two years after the last soldiers had departed, North Vietnam attacked the South but Gerald Ford and Congress did not want to get involved in Vietnam (Detzer 138). The ARVN collapsed, and Americans and thousands of Vietnamese in Saigon were evacuated by the U.S. (Detzer 136-40). On April 30, 1975, South Vietnam fell only a few hours after the last helicopter departed, and the Vietnam War was finally over. The U.S. fought most of the Vietnam War. South Vietnam

was in chaos and didn’t have a very powerful army. The U.S. eventually started to hand the war to the South and tried to train their army. The ARVN was still too weak and the North defeated it. Bibliography Butterfield, Fox et. al. The Vietnam War: An Almanac. New York: World Almanac Publications, 1985. Casey, Michael et. al. The Vietnam Experience: The Army at War. Boston: Boston Publishing Co., 1987. Detzer, David. An Asian Tragedy: America and Vietnam. Brookfield, CT: The Millbrokk Press, 1992. Dougan, Clark and Samuel Lipsman. The Vietnam Experience: A Nation Divided. Boston: Boston Publishing Co., 1987. Doyle, Edward, and Terrence Maitland. The Vietnam Experince: The Aftermath. Boston: Boston Publishing Co., 1985. Kendrick, Alexander. The Wound Within: America in the