US Airlines Essay Research Paper Deregulation of — страница 3
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communications, navigation, and surveillance-related technologies in the NAS Architecture, including: ?h New multi-mode digital radios for voice and data communications among pilots, controllers and various ground facilities. ?h Digital communications technology that increases available voice channel capacity and provides a data link which enables instructions, flight information services, and graphical weather data to be sent directly to the cockpit. Free Flight Phase 1 New tools that give controllers, planners and service operators more complete information about air traffic control and flight operations comprise a large part of the NAS Architecture??s near-term plan. Some of these tools are embodied in a program called Free Flight Phase 1 Select Capability/Limited Deployment. The Free Flight 1 tools are: ?h User request evaluation tool/core capability limited deployment (URET CCLD) ?V an automated tool that assists en route controllers in identifying conflicts up to 20 minutes in advance of their occurrence. ?h Traffic management advisor (TMA) single center ?V an automated tool that assists en route radar controllers with sequencing aircraft to terminal areas. ?h Passive final approach spacing tool (pFAST) ?V an automated tool designed to work in conjunction with TMA to help controllers assign runways and sequence aircraft according to user preferences and airport capacity. ?h Collaborative decision-making (CDM) ?V a real-time exchange of flight plan and system constraints data between the FAA and airline operations centers in order to work collaboratively to better manage NAS traffic. ?h Surface movement advisor (SMA) ?V a system that provides information sharing to airline and airport personnel who plan and manage the sequence of taxi out and plan for arrivals in the ramp and gate areas at larger airports. Automation Infrastructure Free Flight Phase 1 tools and other future tools depend on infrastructure improvements already underway, such as the display system replacement (DSR), standard terminal automation replacement system (STARS) and host/oceanic computer system replacement (HOCSR), to operate. DSR provides new controller workstations and a network infrastructure for the air route traffic control centers (ARTCC). DSR has the capability to show weather data from the next generation weather radar. STARS is the new terminal workstation that will interface with the new sequencing and spacing tools and the advanced communications, navigation, surveillance and weather systems. HOCSR replaces the host and oceanic processors and peripherals at the ARTCCs to solve immediate hardware supportability problems. Since the early 1980s, efforts by the FAA to modernize the air traffic control system have experienced lengthy schedule delays and substantial cost overruns. There is a belief held by many that the above procurement and personnel reforms, while useful, are not likely to change the FAA??s bureaucratic corporate culture. And they do not address the inherent problems of the ATC system being part of the federal budget process, subject to external micromanagement, and subject to a conflict of interest between safety regulation and ATC operations. They believe the United States should follow the example of Britain, Germany, Switzerland and most recently, Canada, in fundamentally restructuring air traffic control. It is their opinion that a not-for-profit user-controlled, user-funded corporation is the best way to address the ATC system??s fundamental problems. We find ourselves with a system that currently runs on obsolete and failure-prone equipment such as 1960s mainframe computers, equipment dependent on vacuum tubes, and radar between twenty and thirty years old. The FAA maintains safety margins by artificially increasing the spacing between flights, imposing ground holds and using other techniques that reduce system capacity. The airlines alone waste $3 billion a year in fuel and crew time due to the delays. Wasted passenger time is estimated at several billion dollars more. The FAA??s National Airspace System Architecture Version 4.0 looks very impressive on paper, but given their track record in regards to modernization, maybe we should be looking at alternatives to a thinly stretched bureaucracy.