US Airlines Essay Research Paper Deregulation of — страница 2

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introduced. The ??Year 2000?? computer problem will hopefully be fixed. ?h Phase 2 (2003-2007) concentrates on deploying the next generation of communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) equipment and the automation upgrades necessary to accommodate new CNS capabilities. Satellite-based navigation systems will be further augmented in local areas for more precise approaches. New digital radios that maximize the spectrum channels will be installed. As users equip, automatic dependent surveillance ground equipment will be installed to extend air traffic control surveillance services to non-radar areas. Tools from Phase 1 will be deployed throughout the NAS and upgraded as necessary. ?h Phase 3 (2008-2015) completes the required infrastructure and integration of automation

advancements with the new CNS technologies, enabling additional Free Flight capabilities throughout the NAS. Two important features will be NAS-wide information sharing among users and service providers and ??four-dimensional?? flight profiles that utilize longitudinal and lateral positions and trajectories as a function of time. The goals for modernizing the NAS are based on improving: ?h Safety ?V such as better weather information in the cockpit and on controller displays. ?h Accessibility ?V such as instrument approaches to many more airports. ?h Flexibility ?V such as allowing users to select and fly desired routes. ?h Predictability ?V such as meeting flight schedules even in adverse weather conditions. ?h Capacity ?V such as increasing aircraft arrival rates to airports.

?h Efficiency ?V such as saving fuel by reducing taxing times to/from the runways. ?h Security ?V such as controlling access to facilities and critical information systems. The NAS Architecture is essential to the FAA and the aviation community because it provides the most detailed guide ever for planning operations and making NAS-related investment decisions. The Blueprint and Version 4.0 will be updated in response to changing needs, research results, new technology, and funding. NAS modernization involves providing new systems to enhance capabilities and services for users. Modernization also includes making the critical infrastructure of air traffic control services easier and more cost-effective to operate and maintain. Critical infrastructure includes: ?h Communications,

navigation/landing and radar surveillance systems ?h Weather detection and reporting equipment ?h Air traffic control computers and displays for controllers ?h Power generation and backup systems ?h Air traffic control facilities sustainment Here is a brief summary of key NAS systems/capabilities and their architectural improvements: Communications Aviation communications systems will be upgraded, integrating systems into a seamless network using digital technology for voice and data. During the transition, the FAA will continue to support analog voice communications. A major improvement will be controller-pilot data link communications (CPDLC), which introduces electronic data exchange between controllers and the cockpit and reduces voice-channel congestion. Navigation Over the

next 10 years, the navigation system is expected to use satellites augmented by ground monitoring stations to provide navigation signal coverage throughout the NAS. Reliance on ground-based navigation aids is expected to decline as satellite navigation provides equivalent levels of service. The transition to satellite-based navigation consists of: ?h Use of the global positioning system (GPS) as a supplemental system for en route navigation and non-precision approaches. ?h Deployment of the wide area augmentation system (WAAS) to augment GPS for primary means en route navigation and precision approaches. WAAS will be deployed in stages by adding ground reference stations, with operational capability improving in each stage. ?h Deployment of a local area augmentation system (LAAS)

to augment GPS for precision approaches in low visibility conditions. Surveillance Surveillance in the future NAS will provide increased coverage in non-radar areas and includes aircraft-to-aircraft capabilities for greater situation awareness. The NAS Architecture calls for gradual transition from current radar systems to digital radar and automatic dependent surveillance (ADS). Aviation Weather The NAS Architecture contains improved ways to collect, process, transmit, and display weather information to users and providers, during flight planning and in flight. The goal is to give NAS providers and users depictions of weather information and provide more weather data in the cockpit to enhance common situation awareness. Avionics Avionics will evolve to take advantage of new