Urban Sprawl Essay Research Paper Urban Sprawl — страница 2

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united and the labor movement was born. The International Workers of the World (IWW), The United Auto Workers (UAW), and several other labor movements changed the way that workers were treated. Movements for safe working conditions, 8-hour workdays, and fair wages were successful. However, Corporations eventually circumvented this obstacle by moving their operations where labor was more exploitable. First they moved to the American South. Then, relatively recently, corporations moved to Third world countries where labor and environmental restrictions were lax if they even existed. The deindustrialization of the 1950’s has as much to do with the deterioration of the American city as industrialization had to do with creating it. What remains are several abandoned manufacturing

facilities. The loss of jobs results in poverty and the degradation of neighborhoods. Areas that were once the cosmopolitan areas of the cities become ghettos. Worcester’s Main South with its grandiose French Second Empire and Queen Anne mansions that are now labeled “slums” support this assertion. Those who have the means to leave flee the city for suburbia. The advent of the automobile facilitates sub urbanization and sprawl is born. One after the other rural areas fall victim to sub urbanization. It spreads out from the city like ripples from a stone thrown in undisturbed water. Suburbs of Boston are now cities. Arlington, Brookline, Cambridge, etc. are consumed by the city. Eventually the sub urbanization spreads further West into Framingham. Currently Westboro,

Shrewsbury, Millbury and many other towns along the Massachusetts turnpike are being invaded by homebuyers who work in Boston. Moreover, in an effort to enhance their recruiting ability corporations such as Compaq build facilities in rural areas further encroaching on ecologically sensitive areas. However, this does not decrease commute time or miles. In fact, from 1983 to 1990 mean vehicle miles per household rose 29% . As these jobs become available in suburban areas with free parking and attractive landscapes they become attractive to everyone rather than just those in the local community. Therefore, cross commuting becomes common and travel miles increase. Consequently, increased traffic leads to street and highway expansion and development furthering deforestation and

encroachment on wildlife habitat. Furthermore, this leads to global warming. As urban conditions deteriorate more of its population moves out seeking better conditions. As a result service sector jobs move out of the city to suburban strip malls further increasing urban unemployment. The urban dwellers cannot afford to live in the suburbs, nor do they have the means to commute to the suburban jobs. The result is poverty concentration in the inner city. Of course, the affluent suburban dwellers want to gain as much distance from this poverty concentration as possible further causing the povertization of cities. Author Anthony Downs of the Brookings Institute argues that as suburban population increases and support services move to suburbia the city will become obsolete . Many

suburban areas no longer depend on their urban centers. They now have their own supermarkets, financial institutions, retailers ETC. Some cities lost 25% of their jobs while their suburbs enjoyed a 5% increase between 1969 and 1986 . As these jobs are lost the urban dwellers fall into a greater state of poverty than already exists. Urban tax bases are decreased and there is decreased investment in schools. These factors increase the gap between classes. Urban students receive inferior education compared to their suburban counterparts. Urban decline leads to increased stratification, crime and human suffering. Of course the response of those living outside the city is that it is not their responsibility. However, suburban dwellers have a social responsibility towards the inner

city. First, suburban residents have contributed to the urban problems by supporting exclusionary laws that result in poverty concentration. These laws have their origins as early as 1930. As cities became more diverse affluent Caucasian urban residents established various legal devices including zoning, deed restrictions, and racially restrictive covenants to impose and increase racial residential segregation. Furthermore, real estate agents, appraisers, brokers and mortgage bankers ensured the concentration of poor minorities by refusing them access to property or loans . Many of these exclusionary practices persist today in the suburbs leading to a concentration of poor minorities in the inner city. Second, Suburbanites have an interest in decreasing the decline of urban areas