Untitled Essay Research Paper SUMER

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Untitled Essay, Research Paper SUMER While researching Sumerian culture I learned many interesting things that I was not aware of before. Many little known facts about Sumer will change the way that people feel about other ancient societies. Many advances that are not attributed to Sumeria, often were pioneered by this advanced culture long before others. Most people don’t even know much about the origan of the Sumerian culture. The people who originally lived in Sumer in 4000 BC were not really Sumerians. Sumers original inhabitants were in fact Ubaidians. The Ubaidian culture was already quite advanced for that time, and had a large variety of unique farming techniques. Between 4000 and 3000 BC Sumer was infiltrated by many nomadic tribes. This constant movement of

peoples caused a cross-fertilization of culture. Technology from many different regions were becoming centralized in Sumer. So were different theological viewpoints. During this millennium the people that we think of as Sumerians moved into Sumer. These people originated near the Caspian sea and did not even arrive in Sumer until 3300 BC. When these people ended up in Sumer it created the worlds first “high civilization”. All who lived in Sumer were now recognized as Sumerian, because Sumerian was the common language. Sumer, like most early middle-eastern nations, was in the fertile crescent. These small waterways provided excellant irrigation, and transportation. Sumer was one of the first large civilizations that had a very developed textile industry. Wool sheared from

goats and sheep was made into garments. The usage of linen was reserved for only high priests and other dignitaries. Flax and wool was used for everyone else. Farming was also a very predominant industry in this nation. All of the mixed culture taught the Sumerians about many different farming methods. Sickles and other tools aided in the farming. The harvested grain was preserved in granaries and pots. This allowed grain to be shipped without spoiling or molding. All of the waterways in Sumeria allowed products to be shipped up and down rivers to other destinations. One popular shipping method was called the “Turnip”. The turnip was a buoy shaped boat that was attached to a long rope. The turnip would float along in the water, while the merchant rode on horseback on a near

by road. Transportation methods increased in efficiency and new types of them arrived during the Sumerian rule, for instance, more types of boats were invented, and the Sumerians introduced the sail to the world of travel. The wheel was also first implemented in the Sumerian nation. When these advanced forms of transportation were not available, people still used donkeys with baskets strapped to their sides. Iron working was used to create tools that aided in the growth of the economy. Harpoons and scythes were constructed from metal so that they were stronger and more affective. Plows and other farming tools were made out of iron now. Cuneiform writing was pioneered by the Sumerian society. Cuneiform was writing that was shaped like wedges. This writing style was used for

thousands of years after the Sumerian empire was overtaken. Sumerians were the first known users of “real” medicine. Their medicine did not rely upon magical incantations or blessings from gods. Tablets were excavated in the city-state of Nippur that provided detailed instructions for some type of balm. The instructions involved boiling, filtering, and pulverizing plants. Also, directions also often required scrubbing of washing wounds. This is the first mention of knowledge of germs. Doctors were referred to as A-ZU, which means Water-Knower. It is unsure if Sumerians knew about surgery yet, but there were many bodies that were found with the skulls sliced through, possibly for study or to relieve pressure on the brain. It is thought that veterinarians also existed. This is