Untitled Essay Research Paper POL 209Y PUBLIC — страница 3

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case, only the data contained in these reports wsill be used in this paper. The 1989 report indicated their had been an increase over the previous year in representation in the work force by each target group. Women increased their representation from 40.90% to 42.12%. Aboriginal peoples increased their representation from 0.66% to 0.73%. Persons with disabilities increased their representation from 1.59% to 1.71% and members of visible minorities increased their representation from 4.99% to 5.69%. Of the women employees that had to be reported by employees under the Act, they constituted 42.12% of the work force. This constituted a 1.22% increase over the previous year. Their representation under the act remained lower than their representation in the Canadian labour force which

is 44%. Aboriginal peoples in the work force under the Act increased very slightly in the same period and remained underrepresented. They represented 0.73% of the work force under the Act compared with 2.1% representation in the Canadian labour force. 10,289 persons with disabilities were reported by employers and constituted 1.71% of all employees reported under the Act. Like the women and the aboriginal peoples, they too remained underrepresented in each province for which employees provided a report. A slight increase in representation was reported for the visible minority group, however, the report indicated that despite the increase, they remained underrepresented in the work force under the Employment Equity Act. The 1992 Annual Report shows that two of the four target

groups exceeded representation in the work force under the Act, compared to representation in the Canadian labour force. Both the women and visible minority groups achieved this mark, however the aboriginal peoples and persons of disability remained underrepresented in the work force under the Act. Women increased their representation to 44.11% which is about the same now as it was for the Canadian labour force (44%) at the time of the 1986 Census. Aboriginal peoples increased to 0.96%. The representation of persons with disabilities increased from 2.39% in the previous year to 2.50%. And Visible minorities increased to 7.55%, slightly higher than it was for the Canadian labour force (6.3%) at the time of the 1986 census. Though the government may want to pat themselves on the

back and claim partial success of the program, in reflecting on the achievements of the women and visible minority target groups, there is a concern that factors other than the Act may have influence the rise in the participation rate of these two groups. In occupations that were traditionally male dominated, i.e.: lawyers and notary publics etc., women have been slowly but gradually playing catch up. This is in part due to the fact that more and more women are graduating from university. In 1987, Canadian universities granted more than 103,000 degrees at the bachelor level. This number represented growth of more than 21 % from 1981. Female graduates out numbered male graduates for the seventh year in a row and by 1987 accounted for 53% of those receiving bachelor’s degrees.

The question then is did the doors to accessible employment open to women because of the Employment Equity Act or did the women provide access for themselves by attending university. Unless there is some equity program in place for university attendance, it would be unreasonable to summize that the Employment Equity program was the sole vehicle for allowing women fair access into the workplace. But even still, there is no real success to speak of. Although gaps are being closer to being closed, women are still underrepresented in some occupations such as upper level managerial positions and overrepresented in traditionally female occupations. For example, under the Act women comprise 0.21% of upper level managers compared to 1.53% of men. And they comprise 60.97% of clerical

workers compared to 14.59% of men. Much of the indicators are similar for that of the visible minority groups. As indicated previously, there are other problems associated with the Act. Complaints have be raised from “public servants and from their unions that the equal opportunity programs violate the merit principle and discriminate against candidates outside the target groups for appointment and promotion.” White males in particular feel that they have become victims of reverse discrimination. As such problems occur when they retaliate against the system by employing candidates in the target group who are sometimes not competent for the position hired, in an attempt at hindering that persons oppotunities for advancement within the company. Another problem that becomes