Untitled Essay Research Paper POL 209Y PUBLIC — страница 2

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participation rates and are concentrated in lower paying jobs, regardless of their level of education. Company Men Women % of Women CN 71,369 4,434 5.9 Air Canada 14,867 6,073 29.6 CBC 8,015 3,094 27 Atomic Energy Canada 5,000 778 13.5 Cape Breton Development 3,822 78 2.0 Number of men and women working for Crown Corporations in 1977 Company Men Women % of Women CN 1,014 2 0.2 Air Canada 158 1 0.6 CBC 116 2 1.7 Atomic Energy Canada 78 0 0 Cape Breton Development N/A N/A N/A Number of men and women in senior management There is also evidence that the other designated groups were at a disadvantage to fair access to employment. Studies have shown that aboriginal peoples, have significantly lower participation rates and higher unemployment rates than those generally experienced in

the Canadian labour force. They also have significantly lower levels of education and are paid lower average salaries. The 1981 census indicate that “of the total aboriginal population, 50.4% worked in the Canadian labour force in 1981.” Persons with disabilities have also been at a disadvantage in the Canadian labour force. Like the aboriginal people, they too have higher unemployment rates, lower participation rates and lower levels of education. 1981 census statistics for disabled person in the labour force were not readily available, however it has been suggested that whatever the figure was, between “1984 and 1986 their participation in the labour force had increase by 11%.” Although members of visible minority groups have relatively high levels of education and

relatively high participation rates, they are generally concentrated in particular occupational groups The Abella Commission found that the essence of the problem with respect to why women and the other designated groups were not reaping the full potential benefits from their participation in the labour force was “systemic” in nature. In other words, “the prevailing socio-economic system in which all Canadians worked had a set of social and political values and institutions in place which often unintentionally discriminated against these groups.” The Abella Commission harboured the opinion that the discriminating systemic barriers could only be eliminated through systemic remedies, thus, “comprehensive programs had to be adopted and put in place to enable target groups

to overcome the systemic barriers of employment. . . . . . . . .and that a new term ‘employment equity’ be adopted to describe programs of positive remedy for discrimination in the workplace.” In 1986, the federal government passed the Employment Equity Act. The Act required that all “federally regulated employers with 100 or more employees to implement equity programs and provide for minimal commitments on the part of employers to file bare census information on their work force with the Canada Employment and Immigration Commission and to develop their own defined employment equity program to remedy systemic discrimination.” On September 1, during the same year, the federal government implemented the Federal Contractors Employment Equity Program, requiring that all

contractors with 100 employees or more, tendering for goods and services with the federal government to implement employment equity within their organization. The Acts essentially aimed at making the demographic characteristics of the Canadian labour force to be representative of the demographic base of Canada. “In it’s full sense, employment equity is a comprehensive planning process designed to bring about not only equality of opportunity but equality in results. Its primary objective is to ensure that the Canadian work force is an accurate reflection of the composition of the Canadian population given the availability of required skills. This objective is essentially an ethical goal based on the value of ensuring equity.” Although some progress has been made since the

enactment of the Employment Equity Act, to date the target groups are still underrepresented in the labour force, in addition there are other difficulties facing these groups in relation to the Act. Provisions were made in the Act requiring mandatory reporting of progress in the companies affected by the Act (all federally regulated companies with more than 100 employees). From the information provided by these companies, which approximates 350, the Minister of Employment and Immigration Canada is required to compile an annual report, to analyse and monitor the progress of the Act and to ensure compliance. Although annual reports exist from 1987 to 1992, while researching this paper, only the reports for 1989, 1990 and 1992 were readily available for examination. As such is the