Untitled Essay Research Paper Morality and the — страница 2
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C, T, and G. Any ordered pair of bases makes a sequence. These sequences are the instructions that produce molecules, proteins, for cellular structure and biochemical functions. In relation, a marker is any location on a chromosome where inheritance can be identified and tracked (202). Markers can be expressed areas of genes (DNA) or some segment of DNA with no known coding function but an inheritance could be traced (3). It is these markers that are used to do genetic mapping. By the use of genetic mapping isolated areas of DNA are used to find if a person has a specific trait, inherent factor, or any other numerous genetic information. In conclusion, the genetic history of ancient selective breeding to Mendel’s garden peas to the current isolation of genes has been reached only through collaborative data of many organizations and scientist. The Human Genome Project has several objectives. To better understand the moral issues that exist the project itself must be examined. Among the many objectives, DNA databases that include sequences, location markers, genes, and the function of similar genes (Congress,7). The creation of human chromosome maps for DNA markers that would allow the location of genes to be found. A repository of research materials including ordered sets of DNA fragments representing the complete DNA in chromosomes. New instruments for analysis of DNA. New methods of analysis of DNA through chemical, physical, and computational methods. Develop similar research technologies for other organisms. Finally, to determine the DNA sequence of a large fraction of the human genome and other organisms. The objectives of the Human Genome Project are carried out by organizations such as the Department of Energy, National Institutes of Health, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and various private organizations. These organizations all have two shared features, placing “new methods and instruments into toolkit of molecular biology” and “build reasearch infrastructure for genetics.” Making the directives of the Human Genome Project apparent is important in making a moral judgment on this genetic technology. Any attempt to resolve moral issues involving new information from the Human Genome Project requires direct, clear, and total understanding of common morality. Subsequently, a moral theory is the attempt to explain, justify, and make visible “the moral system that people use in making their moral judgments and how to act when confronting a moral problem” (Gert,31). This theory is based on rational decisions. With this in mind, the moral system must be known by everyone who is judged by it. This leads to the rational statement that “morality must be a public system” (33). The individuals of the public system must know what morality requires of them, and the judgments and guidelines made must be rational to them. Just like any game, the players play by a set of rules and these rules dictate how play is done. The game is played only when everyone knows how to play. When rules are broken penalties are inforced by the other players judgment according to the rules allowed. However, if everyone agrees to change the rules then the game continues without any penalties. Therefore, “the goal of common morality is to lessen the amount of harm suffered by those protected by it” and it is constrained by the knowledge and need to be understood by all it applies to (47). Justified violations also exist in common morality. Just like in the game, a change in the rules causes acceptance, morality can be viewed not as an evil by the public perception but as a decision backed by common morals. Based on the pattern of common morality the issues of genetic race or class distinction or any other controversies involving the Human Genome Project can be put to a set of common moral standards. Just like the moral standard that says killing is wrong but killing is justifiable in self-defense, the Human Genome Project can be argued along the same pattern of moral discussion. The justifiable violations that genetic information is based on depends on the common morality which is based on the public system which is based on the decisions of right and wrong. In conclusion, the moral dilemma of genetics is that will it be an asset to the individuals public perception of common morality or will it be an evil to the individuals public perception of common morality based on the right and wrong of the information. This answer is based on the societies structure. In one time period it may be accepted in another in may not.