University Of Central OklahomaDepartment Of Nursing Essay

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University Of Central OklahomaDepartment Of Nursing Essay, Research Paper Nurse?s Attitudes TowardDo Not Resuscitate Orders In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirementsfor Nursing 4522Nursing Research II Presented toAllen Nottingham, R.N., B.S. ByMeggin BeanJessica BrownellShannon GenzerLeslie LoomanShanna McIntosh April 20, 1998 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION?????????????????????1 Background??????????????????????1 Theoretical Framework?????????????????. 4 Problem Statement??????????????????? 5 Statement of Purpose??????????????????..5 Research Question???????????????????..6 Theoretical Definitions?????????????????.. 6 Operational Definitions?????????????????..7 II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE?????????????????9 Introductory Statement??????????????????9 Conceptual

Framework?????????????????..101. Pre-Conventional Level?????????????112. Conventional Level??????????????.. 173. Post-Conventional Level????????????.. 21 Summary???????????????????????.24 III. METHODOLOGY????????????????????.. 26 Introductory Statement?????????????????.. 26 Research Setting????????????????????. 27 Subjects???????????????????????.. 27 Procedure??????????????????????? 28 Instrumentation????????????????????.. 29 Assumptions related to Methodology????????????. 31 IV. REFERENCES??????????????????????. 32 V. APPENDICES??????????????????????. 36 Appendix A?????????????????????? 36 Appendix B?????????????????????? 41 Appendix C?????????????????????? 42 Appendix D?????????????????????? 43 Appendix E?????????????????????? 45 CHAPTER I Introduction Background Many

influences such as cultural background, values, morals, and beliefs bring great force to bear upon almost every decision a person must make throughout an average day whether it be a choice, idea , or action. These influences are used in the formation of attitudes about one?s self in general, and about right or wrong. All people have these childhood influences to credit for our attitudes, choices, ideas, and even beliefs that are held dear. Attitudes developed during childhood and throughout life play a key role in the way people interact with one another, handle crises, or even deal with day-to-day problems that occur in their lives. These beliefs are central to every human whether they be carpenter, politician, or registered nurse. So enmeshed in our daily lives are these

values, that very often their role in the decision process goes unnoticed. In fact, one can live their entire life and never have awareness as to what triggers certain emotions, feelings toward the other sex, or even what drives the direction of thought. Yet, they are passed on to every generation often blindly, with every gesture, every arched eyebrow, and every fairy tale. The awareness of their presence is secondary to the need to have them. They are the thread that stitches communities together, brings people to a common ground, and gives many a purpose for living. Attitudes about death and dying are derived from a lifelong process of experiencing life and the beliefs about death that one accepts as their own. In many cultures beliefs and issues surrounding death are the ones

held dearest and closest to oneself. Many, if not all, cultures accept that death is but another step in the process of life. However, differences in how one may choose to welcome or elude death are varied and many. How one chooses to face death, what instrumentation, and even where to die (when one has the choice) are all matters of personal preference. Use of Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) orders or exhaustive measures are also matters of preference ( when there is a living will and these decisions are made ahead of time), and these preferences affect many lives ranging from friend to caregiver. As a caregiver, the nurse must deal with death and those that are dying on an almost daily basis. As a nurse, one must be aware of his or her own personal feelings and beliefs regarding death