United States Governmental Issues During The Late — страница 2
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Exclusion Act was passed in 1892, prohibiting immigrants from China. Even so, immigrants from European countries continued to accumulate. The General Immigration Act was another attempt to regulate the various immigrants. This act refuse to admit to the United States prostitutes, alcoholics, and insanes. However, America was unable to put this act into effect, for it was hard to determine what disguises those europeans had taken. As a result of the government’s failure to restrict its own population, millions of immigrants were granted jobs that otherwise would’ve been offerred to its native inhabitants. This in addition to the government’s failure to regulate big businesses result in more than thousands of unemployed citizens. As a result of the mass expansion of railroads, communication became very effective, which in turn helped companies tremendously in transporting its goods, communicating with each other, and advertising its products. The building of railroads required steel and coal, thus these two industries also flourished. Immediately succeeding these profitable companies were petroleum, oil, sugar, leather, and much much more. Big companies work together to organize pools and trusts, both were some aspect of private promises to keep the same price so that both companies could flourish. Trusts and pools of big businesses limit competition, which then resulted in ridiculously high prices for the consumers. In an attempt to control big businesses, government passed the Sherman Act in 1890 that prohibit combinations of companies that restrict competition. This act was not at all effective due to government’s failure to enforce it. The factor that worsened the situation was government’s interpretation of the 14th Amendment in the Constitution. In respond to public’s outrage of companies’ trusts, they defined trustees as corporate persons who cannot be discriminated against life, liberty, and property. Therefore prices were still being manipulated by big companies, and the majority of america’s population sufferred. The success of big businesses owed itself to the success of railroad production. The construction of railroads was induced by the increasing number of people who desperately needed it for transportation to their work places, however far it may be. At its height american length of railraod was more than all of Europe combined. Government showed its support in railroad construction when it granted 170 million acres of land for railroads. This vast land could have been granted as homesteads for america’s poor families, but government had shown its favor in business. When prices in rural, non-competitive areas were ridiculously high, enough farmers complained for the government to pass the Interstate Railroad Act, which required railroad rates to be reasonable, and denied the power of individual states to regulate interstate commerce. This Act proved to be a failure in the case of Munn versus Illinois when Supreme Court upheld the right of states to regulate business. Much of the land available for railroad construction was seized from native americans. In addition to that, the Gold Rush in California caused thousands of americans to seek land in western land, an area inhabited greatly by native americans at that time. Even though 2/3 of western tribal groups lived on the Great Plains, the Homestead Act promised land to american settlement right on these lands. In the neighboring territory of Oklahoma, thousands of whites continued to pour into the rich land. US took action under the US Census Bureau to declare the closing of the frontier, but at that time most of the land had already been seized by land speculators who had been waiting desperately for a chance. Furious native americans attempted to resist US domination and drive the whites from their lands in the Battle of Wounded Knee, in which over 200 native americans were killed. This disaster proved government’s failure to deal with the Indian affair. The US, through many acts, was clearly seen to have been trying to regulate railroads, big businesses, immigration, native american problems, and the issue of civil service reform. Its efforts were appreciative and benevolent, but the effects were not as successful as everyone had hoped. Laws such as the Interstate Railroad Act the General Immigration Act, and the Sherman Act that would have been a remedy to problems of railroad, immigration and business regulation were not eforced strictly enough to cure the maturing nation.