Type Ii Diabetes Essay Research Paper Rebecca — страница 5

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honor of his discovery. But when he later identified them no one had yet isolated the hormone insulin or even guessed at the role of these cells producing it. The linkage between diabetes and the pancreas was proven in 1889 by Oscar Minkowski and Joseph Strasburg in France. Von Mering was studying how the body observed fat. He suggested that if the pancreas wasn’t working right some fat being used poorly. Von Mering attempted to test his hypothesis by operating on a dog and tying off all the ducts leading from its pancreas. What he found out was pancreatic fluids still leaked out. Minkowski, offered to totally remove the dog’s pancreas. The two doctors when testing on the dog had no idea this had something to do with diabetes. Surgery was performed on the dog. The two doctors

went away, while Von Merings assistant was to train the dog to urinate and defecate at specific times and locations. When Minkowski returned, he found that the animal was urinating all over the place. The assistant couldn’t explain why this was so. Minkowski collected some of the dog’s urine and tested for glucose. The results for glucose came back in high amounts. The experiment was put on several dogs, and the same thing happened. Minkowski and Von Mering realized they had a breaking discovery; there was evidence that diabetes was related to disturbances of the pancreas. The role of insulin with diabetes wasn’t discovered until about 30 years later. The breakthrough came in 1921, with the discovery of insulin. Dr. Frederick Banting, a Canadian doctor and Charles Best, a

medical student, set out to find out a substance in the pancreas that would lower blood sugar. For a whole summer they worked. They started to identify a substance from the islets of Langerhans. They called it isletin, which was later changed to insulin. Banting and Best injected a dog diagnosed with diabetes. Very quickly, the dog’s blood sugar level dropped. Repeats were done and the same results surfaced. Some symptoms that these diabetic dogs had were also found in humans as well. The constant need to urinate along with being thirsty were just a few. Other symptoms that were common in people were hunger, headaches, drowsiness and many diabetics were often over weight. As said before, diets are recommended by doctors to help control a patient’s diabetes. A diet composed of

low carbohydrates, low sugar and a low fat diet is recommended. Doctors state that if you are overweight and then lose it, this can help to prevent diabetes. However, if diabetes runs in your family, you are a likely candidate for developing it. Besides being a disease in itself, diabetes can also cause other types of diseases as well. Various skin lesions such as abscesses, ulcers, eczema and bullous lesions can occur. These things can occur due to lack of insulin or too much insulin. So it’s very important for the body to maintain its insulin. Besides skin diseases, diabetes can also affect other parts of the body such as the eyes. Here, diabetes can cause blindness due to glaucoma and retina atrophy. Also, insulin dependent diabetics should often rotate injection sites for

if not, the injections can cause indentations, excessive fat and a thickened skin build up. Diabetics can also develop hypoglycemia which is low blood sugar. With Hypoglycemia, there is an overproduction of insulin. This can occur when a diabetic person has injected too much insulin, eaten too little food, or exercised without extra food. Any and every insulin-treated patient is at risk for hypoglycemia. Symptoms of hypoglycemia include shakiness, nervousness, hunger, weakness, lethargy, sweaty, dizzy or lightheaded and seizure. Seizures will only occur in those who have sever hypoglycemia. The opposite of hypoglycemia is hyperglycemia. This is high blood sugar and also a sign that your diabetes is out of control. It can occur if the body does not have enough insulin or cannot

use the insulin it has to turn glucose into energy. Signs of hyperglycemia include; great thirst, dry mouth and a need to urinate often. For insulin-dependent diabetes this can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis, which can cause nausea, vomiting and eventually lead to a coma. Hyperglycemia damages arteries, which can cause heart disease. It also damages tissues, which promotes organ failure especially in the kidneys. So far, we’ve talked about both Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes. We have yet to explore Gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes occurs only in pregnant women. It’s caused by a blockage from hormones made in the placenta, which supplies the fetus with nutrients from the mother. This happens usually about midway through the pregnancy. Many women who develop