Turner Syndrome Essay Research Paper INTRODUCTIONThere are

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Turner Syndrome Essay, Research Paper INTRODUCTION There are many possible reasons why a child may grow slowly, including: hereditary factors (short parents), diseases affecting the kidneys; heart, lungs or intestines; hormone imbalances; severe stress or emotional deprivation; infections in the womb before birth; bone diseases; and genetic or chromosomal abnormalities. The Turner Syndrome (known as Ullrich-Turner Syndrome in Germany) is a congenital disease. A German doctor named Ullrich published his article in 1930. American doctor Henry Turner recognized a pattern of short stature and incomplete sexual maturation in otherwise normal females. He published a comprehensive medical description of the syndrome. It was not until 1959, that it became clear the syndrome was due

to lack of sex chromosome material. Turner’s Syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder that affects one in approximately 2,500 females. Females normally have two X-chromosomes. However, in those with Turner’s Syndrome, one X chromosome is absent or is damaged. OTHER NAMES Depending on the doctor, Turner’s Syndrome may be diagnosed with one of the following alternative names: 45 – X Syndrome, Bonnevie-Ulrich Syndrome, Chromosome X, Monosomy X, Morgagni-Turner-Albright Syndrome, Ovarian Dwarfism, Turner Type, among others. SYNDROME CHARACTERISTICS A reduced growth in height is the commonest visible characteristic of the syndrome, (the average adult height is 4 feet 8 inches) and may be the only sign before puberty. Their body proportions are normal. Girls with this syndrome

may have many middle ear infections during childhood; if not treated, these chronic infections could cause hearing loss. Up to the age of about 2 years, growth in height is approximately normal, but then it lags behind that of other girls. Greatly reduced growth in height of a female child should lead to a chromosome test if no diagnosis has already been made. Early diagnosis is very importance in order to be able to give enough correct information to the parents, and gradually to the child herself, so that she has the best possibilities for development. Early diagnosis is also important in case surgical treatment of the congenital heart defect (seen in about 20 per cent of cases) is indicated. The commonest defect is a narrowing of the main artery from the heart aortic

coarctation. A regular ultrasound examination of the heart is recommended in all girls with Turner syndrome. This type of heart defect is present at birth and can be corrected surgically. If not present at birth, it does not develop later in life. The lack of sexual development at puberty is the second most common characteristic. Having abnormal chromosomes does not mean that girls with Turner syndrome are not really female; they are women with a condition that causes short stature and poorly developed ovaries. Affected females may also exhibit the following symptoms: infertility, kidney abnormalities, thyroid disease, heart disease, abnormalities of the eyes and bones, webbed neck, low hairline, drooping of eyelids, abnormal bone development, absent or retarded development of

physical features that normally appear at puberty, decrease of tears when crying, simian crease (a single crease in the palm), a “caved-in” appearance to the chest, puffy hands and feet, unusual shape and rotation of ears, soft upturned nails, small lower jaw, arms turned out slightly at elbows, shortened 4th fingers, small brown moles, hearing loss, scoliosis, cataracts , scars, overweight, Chrohn disease. Chromosome Patterns The normal female has 46 chromosomes, of which the two sex chromosomes are X-chromosomes. This is expressed as 46,XX (men: 46,XY). In many women with Turner syndrome, one of the X-chromosomes lacks completely, and the chromosome pattern then becomes 45,X. The X-chromosome in women is the carrier of genes related to production of ovaries and female sex