Troilus And Criseyde By Chaucer Essay Research — страница 2

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on an older man, it would be a serious affront to his morality (Rosetti 177). A slightly more favorable view holds that as Pandarus is beholden to aide a friend, Chaucer uses the character?s charm to influence readers to view the act as less of crime. Finally, one can take the opinion that Pandarus? actions coincide perfectly with the ideas of Courtly love and therefore are less odious (Kirby 181). However grim these opinions maybe, Chaucer, and as a result, Pandarus, takes the bull by the figurative horns and addresses the issue. Criseyde questions Pandarus after his declaration of Troilus? love by saying: "?Alas, for wo! Why nere I deed?/For of the world the feyth is al agoon./Allas! what sholden straunge to me doon,/When he, that for my beste frend I wende,/Ret me to

love, and sholde it me defende?" (Chaucer 61). Pandarus presents his position on the basis that he is aiding a friend. But with Troilus, Pandarus argues the exact opposite. He claims he is suffering from pangs of guilt. He states that he has behaved like a pimp through true friendship and Troilus exonerates him (Chaucer 125-6). "Thus it seems that Pandarus? moral conflict is found not only among scholars, but in the characters themselves. Both Criseyde and Pandarus realize that he is not fulfilling his duty as an older relative" and that by pleading the case for Troilus, Pandarus is dishonoring Criseyde (Berkeley Research 5). After coaxing Criseyde to pass the night at his house and after hiding Troilus in a cramped closet, Pandarus? actions reveal his true

busy-body qualities. He is always present during the conversations of the lover and often stays past the time to leave by unobtrusively claiming to read books. It would appear that his curiosity goes beyond his desire to aide, marking him as a voyarist. However, after the momentous night when Criseyde takes Troilus to be her lover, Pandarus? role diminished until the time of Criseyde?s betrayal is made known. In his indecision over what to do during the awkward revelation of Criseyde?s betrayal, Kirby argues that "This powerful scene, depicting the great comic figure at a moment of high tragedy, showing his complete helplessness, his utter inability to do anything further to help his friend and yet, with it all, his great generousity and mercy, Is the last in which Pandarus

appears" (Kirby 176). This depicts the final development of the character Pandarus. He has come full circle from the amicable, helpful friend, to the original pimp, to the very soul of generosity. It is in the complexity of his character for fully demonstrating true human beings rather than the age-old stereotypes that the true genius of Chaucer is fully realized. Unlike the imaginative character of Pandarus, Troilus follows fairly closely with the previous sources. He is the epitome of the courtly lover. Paul Baum states that "?Troilus has but one religion, that of Love. He is neither pagan nor Christian, but always a devout follower of amour courtois, an embodiment of the best elements of the code. He has not thought, commits no act, which is not in perfect harmony

with the tenets of his religion" (152). The tenets of courtly love are outlined by C. S. Lewis. They hold that the lover will always choose to serve the lady he loves, requesting that he would be the only one she allow to serve her. Secondly, he must be faithful to his lady and vice versa once the lady of his heart accepts the lovestruck knight. Furthermore, the knight will continually worship the lady and accomplish whatever tasks he deems will make himself worthy of her. Lastly, and most importantly, courtly love involves the utmost secrecy. The love shared must be kept secret less the lady?s honor (who the knight has sworn to uphold and dutybound to protect) becomes blemished. As seen throughout the entire epic poem, Troilus duly qualifies every last tenet of courtly

love. We see him smirk at those in love before he is struck by Cupid?s arrow. At the very sight of Criseyde, Chaucer writes "And of hire look in hem ther gan to quken/So gret desir and such affeccioun,/That in his hertes botme gan to stiken/Of hir his fixe and depe impressioun" (14). After Troilus has been struck by Cupid?s arrow, "he continues to mock all lovers in order to maintain secrecy about his love (Berkley Research 8). Finally upon revealing his secret to Pandarus, Troilus dedicates himself to serve Criseyde and the god of love. "And to the God of Love thus seyde he/With pitous vois, "O lord, now youres be./Yow thanke I, lord, that han me brought to this./But whether goodesse or womman, iwis,/She be, I not, which that ye do me serve;/But as hire