Troilus And Cressida Manipulations Of A Universal — страница 2
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(expressed by Ulysses), there is a third source of value in Troilus, which ultimately controls human action. This is “appetite”, the “universal wolf.” Most of the characters in Troilus act to achieve what they desire, or have appetite for. This is the cause of the ensuing pandemonium. Ideally, this appetite is controlled by reason, but the characters have no way of determining what is good and what is evil, and therefore have no way to use reason to control their appetites. This arises from a lack of knowledge of inherent values, which forces the characters to relinquish their force of will over appetite, because they have no basis to see what is evil or righteous. That is why Ulysses warns that if degree is neglected: “Then everything includes itself in power, Power into will, will into appetite; And appetite, an universal wolf, So doubly seconded with will and power, Must make perforce an universal prey, And last eat up himself. “(I iii 119-124) As Ulysses states, if objects and men cannot be placed into their degree on the Great Chain of Being, then reason cannot function properly, and therefore, appetites continue unhindered by will on the behalf of the character. The unrestrained appetite of love produces emotional chaos, which threatens social stability once the Chain of Being is broken and appetite, rather than reason, controls human behavior. Troilus acts on the basis of appetite, seeking Cressida, and yet he attempts to elevate the object of his appetite into an inherent value of beauty, to match his sense of his own value. When he is finally forced by Ulysses to give an inherent value to Cressida after she is wooed by Diomedes, he is unable to do so, and instead insists that she has no value because she has been false, and his appetite is no longer met: “This she? No; this is Diomed?s Cressida. If beauty have a soul, this is not she; If souls guide vows, if vows be sanctimonies, If sanctimony be the gods? delight, If there be rule in unity itself. This is not she.” (V ii 134-139) However, there is a contradiction in this passage. Troilus understands that there are inherent values for everything, including Cressida. However, he is contradicting this fact, and claims that Cressida is no more, which he realizes is not true. Instead of maintaining the normal base of the inherent value system and discarding the absurdity that Cressida does not exist, he instead throws out the idea of inherent values. His logical conclusion is that these absolute values do not exist, and that there is not even “rule in unity itself” (V ii 138). Thus, Troilus moves from questioning the nature of Cressida to questioning the nature of the entire universe: “The bonds of heaven are slipped, dissolved/ and loosed” (V ii 153-154). With these bonds broken, disorder is possible, and it takes over quite readily. Ulysses? predictions were correct; the dissolution of degree causes chaos, much like the wandering planets he speaks of when comparing the Greek military to the heavens. In sum, the Great Chain of Being arranged the universe into the order it needed to fend off discord and the decree of human desires. The manifestations of appetite that cause this rupture in harmony stem from the lack of inherent values, and the lack of rationality and therefore the control over innocence and corruption. For “when degree is shaked,/ Which is the ladder of all high designs,/ The enterprise is sick.” (I iii 101-103).