Tourism. Types of tourism

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The Russian State University of Tourism and Service. Tourism. Types of tourism Tkachenko Anastasia SKD-07-1 Moscow 2009 Content 1. Tourism 2. Types of tourism 2.1 Extreme tourism 2.2 Cultural tourism 2.3 Ecological tourism 2.4 Educational tourism Topical vocabulary Summary 1. Tourism Tourism is defined as the act of travel with the intentions of recreational pleasure. The World Tourism Organization defines a tourist is someone who travels at least 50 miles or 80 kilometers away from their home, for the purpose of entertainment and pleasure. The terms tourist and tourism were first recognized in 1937 by the League of Nations, whose definition involved a person who traveled abroad for more than 24 hours. Tourism is the act of paying money to go from one place to another to see

different and unique sights, has been a fact of civilized life since approximately the 12th century. Of course, back in those days it was basically the upper, upper classes that had the time, the money, and the interest in travelling from one spot to another. The word "travel" by the way comes from the medieval English word "travail" which means suffering great hardship, and that is a very good description of travel in its earliest days. Much has been written about the journeys of Marco Polo, who until recently was considered the world's first tourist. The advent of air travel in the 1930's heralded the true beginnings of what is called "tourism" today. People move from all around the country, whether by plane, boat, car, bus or train. Today's Travel

for the Masses Data from the American Society of Travel Agents (ASTA) suggests that at any given moment of any given day, more than 2 million people around the world are in the process of traveling from one place to another. The world tourism organization claims that tourism is currently the worlds largest industry. With annual revenues of almost 3 trillion, its economic impact is second to that of only the weapons industry. 2. Types of tourism There are different types of tourism that can be enjoyed. Some are listed below: Extreme tourism or shock tourism is a type of niche tourism involving travel to dangerous places (mountains, jungles, deserts, caves, etc.) or participation in dangerous events. Cultural tourism involves visiting historical or intersting cities, such as Paris,

Shanghai, Rome or Warsaw. This is when tourists engage in cultural experiences, like visiting an art museum, theater or opera. Ecotourism involves traveling that does not pose a threat to the environment, such as safariing in Kenya. Ecotourism integrates tourism with ecology, offering wide varieties of landscapes and activities. Educational tourism developed because of the growing popularity of teaching and learning of knowledge, and enhancing technical competency outside the classroom environment. 2.1 Extreme tourism Extreme tourism or shock tourism is a type of niche tourism involving travel to dangerous places (mountains, jungles, deserts, caves, etc.) or participation in dangerous events. Extreme tourism overlaps with extreme sport. The two share the main attraction,

"adrenaline rush" caused by an element of risk, and differing mostly in the degree of engagement and professionalism. Extreme tourism is a growing business in the countries of the former Soviet Union (Russia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, etc.) and in South American countries like Peru, Chile and Argentina. The mountainous and rugged terrain of Northern Pakistan has also developed into a popular extreme tourism location. While traditional tourism requires significant investments in hotels, roads, etc., extreme tourism requires much less to jump-start a business. In addition to traditional travel-based tourism destinations, various exotic attractions are suggested, such ice diving in the White Sea, or travelling across the Chernobyl zone. Demand for extreme tourism in Russia is