Tourism In New Zealand Essay Research Paper — страница 2

  • Просмотров 149
  • Скачиваний 5
  • Размер файла 16

and wide spread nature of the tourism industry makes it difficult to measure its impact on the economy, where does tourism stop and something else start? Data collection from a base level starts with a definition and when that definition is no universal it can make comparisons very difficult. Generally statistics about tourists cover three areas. Volume -the number of tourists arriving at a destination and the length of their stay. The expenditure – statistics about tourist expenditure and where the money goes. Finally tourist characteristics include- age, sex, race, time of visit, occupation, accommodation used and so on. There are plenty of New Zealand Tourism surveys available, some examples are The New Zealand International Visitors Survey 1996/97 or the New Zealand Tourist

Attraction Survey. History & Growth Travel facilitators and motivators have been fundamental in the development of tourism to where it is today both in New Zealand and internationally. Travel facilitators are simply the factors that facilitate travel for a person. These are an adequate disposable income and enough leisure time. As a result of the industrial revolution in the second half of the 19th century global tourism increased as the middle class became increasingly wealthy. Then with the introduction of paid holidays and pay parity for men and woman, within the last fifty years the amount of tourism has risen sharply. Other facilitators include ease of access to travel documents such as visas or passports, attractive exchange rates and political stability. Political

problems in the Middle East do not facilitate travel to that region. In the same way, the murder of tourists in Africa recently does not motivate travel to that area. Motivators are things directing us to travel. A motivator might be a personal need that must be satisfied or it may be a pulling factor like the qualities of a specific destination. Developments in New Zealand the last fifty years have dramatically changed tourism. The beginning of Saturday and later Sunday trading one, while licensing changes resulting in longer hours for bars and restaurants have maid New Zealand more attractive. Transportation developments have been significant for this country because of our isolation. The jet engine made it cheaper and considerably faster than boat travel to get here. Later

changes in the law allowed for greater competition and more diverse transport options within the country. To New Zealand, tourism is not just about international movement. A significant part of the New Zealand industry is domestic tourism, that is when a person travels outside their place of residence to another region within the country. Although less visible than international tourism; the importance of domestic visitors can not be underestimated, as they provide the regions with their base market, fostering regional development and maintaining much of the tourism infrastructure used by overseas tourists . Structure of the Tourism Industry There are a number of major international organizations, which are primarily involved with tourism. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is

the biggest. WTO began in its current state in 1975 but was previously known as the International Union of Official Travel, which began in 1925. The current objective of the WTO as the put it, is to give tourism the importance it deserves . WTO is recognized by the United Nations (UN) giving it the right to speak to governments concerning tourism issues. The UN itself is also partly involved in tourism where it falls within the UN s objectives of developing international trade, economics and social welfare. Another body is the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Committee on Tourism. This committee reports on tourism development and statistics of member nations. Tourism has an influence on most areas of society, employment, environment, health, economic

stability and quality of life. Therefore it is the concern of governments, the public sector, is to ensure the negative consequences is minimized. At the 1968 UN Conference on International Travel and Tourism it was made clear the government intervention and management is required for the smooth running tourist activities between countries. In New Zealand the biggest participants in creating the creating the tourism product are from the private sector, that is individual operators like airlines, accommodation chains, attractions and tour operators. These sectors have their own organizations. For example hotels are represented by the Hotel Association of New Zealand (HANZ). The sales sector has groups like the travel agents Association of New Zealand or the Inbound Tourism