Tourism As A Development Strategy In The — страница 3

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there is no tangible product, and the consumer personally collects the product from the place of production. As a result, no direct transportation costs exist outside the destination’s boundaries, except where transportation is owned by the destination, which is rare due to the importance of Transnational Corporations (TNC’s) and international airlines. Secondly, the destination areas require the provision of goods and services necessary in the industry, such as the relevant infrastructure and retail functions. Thirdly, tourism is integrated into other parts of the economy directly, through hotels, restaurants, etc. and indirectly, through tax revenues and an expansion in community services, for example. Finally, tourism is a very unstable export – it is very influenced by

unforeseen external events, such as climatic events, natural disasters, political unrest, or changes in international currency rates. This volatility means potential visitors are quick to abandon formerly popular destinations because of threats to health and safety, such as Beirut and Greece or more recently India, Turkey or Japan; also people’s diverse expectations means the likelihood of people only visiting a destination once; and finally its seasonal variation means sufficient income must be earned during the high season to sustain the low season. 2.2 – TOURISM IN THE THIRD WORLD Turner (1976) has described international tourism as, “…the most promising, complex and under-studied industry impinging on the Third World.” (p. 253) Tourism in developing countries is a

relatively new activity and it is only since the late 1960’s that the industry has appeared alongside other, more traditional activities, in the literature, as a process of development. Krause & Jud (1973) see, “…mankind’s unending search for exotic and colorful (sic) places,” (p. ix) as a powerful lure to developing countries. Turner identifies the pleasure periphery as a band of host countries, “…stretching from Mexico, through Florida and the Caribbean, to the Mediterranean; from Beirut through East Africa, the Seychelles, and India to Bali and Bangkok in South East Asia; through Pacific Islands like Fiji, Tahiti and Hawaii, back to Southern California and Mexico.” (1976, p.253) The tourism in this band is not just confined to these regions and the belt

affected is always expanding. As more of Latin America, Africa and Asia are attracting more visitors; more impoverished regions are turning to tourism as a primary path to development; more leisure time and income are becoming available; a reduction in the price of long haul flights; and `mankind’ continues to discover new destinations. It was in the 1950’s and 1960’s, that a number of LDC’s, such as Greece, Spain and Mexico, as well as several East African and South East Asian destinations became popular with travellers. In the 1970’s, more competition between destinations meant the growth of tourism elsewhere, in North Africa, the Far East and islands in the Caribbean and the Seychelles. Despite the oil crisis and rise in air transport prices in the early 1970’s,

and hence the slump in the world economy, international tourism as an industry has been gradually establishing itself worldwide. Industrialisation is commonly considered the most successful means for development. However, many LDC’s are limited by various factors, such as small domestic markets, barriers to an increase in exports of manufactured goods and a scarcity of foreign-exchange earnings for industrial expansion. Hence, as a result of slow or no progress, alternative means to development are being sought. Faced with rapid population growth, high unemployment, an uneven distribution of property, land and incomes, dependence upon agriculture for income and occupation, tourism is seen as the ideal solution for the Third World. 2.3 – IMPACTS OF TOURISM These can be divided

into economic, social/cultural and environmental/physical. Initially, the most important aspect to Third World governments, when making decisions on tourist development, is its economic impacts. However, since the 1970’s, work has moved further and many studies have shown a veer towards not simply explaining the location and characteristics of this international tourism, but also the extent to which its ramifications affect the areas and people concerned, economically, socially and physically. ECONOMIC IMPACTS Predominantly, it is the economic benefits that are more conspicuous and have been the focus of most earlier work (Pearce, 1981, p.1, p.43), although recently, the costs too are being made apparent. Tourism is a popular incentive for development in Third World countries