Total Quality Management In Construction Essay Research — страница 2

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that guides a firm?s believes and values. The gist of the corporate vision should be a simple, one sentence guide or motto that every employee knows, and more important, believes. If well crafted, the vision statement can serve through a torrent of change in product and service technology. The strategic vision needs to consider both the external customer and the employees, but should lack a defining or differentiating phrase between them. For example, General Motors provides all employees a card with its strategic vision, including a cause-effect diagram that indicates the importance of team work (figure 2). Simply stating a vision is not enough. It needs to be demonstrated by the actions of the executives, managers , superiors, foremen, and individuals. It should be done

continuously in all their actions and initiatives. Moreover, deliberation must be exercised in developing these goals and strategies. They must reflect the values and culture of the work force. While top-management commitment is essential, managers should realize when to lead and when to get out of the way. In a sense quality management is management from the bottom up. An atmosphere of responsibility must be created toward the customer for whatever product is produced or service is rendered (fig.3, below). Figure 3 Strategies in Successful Vision Implementation Demonstrate commitment. Inform suppliers. Maintain a constancy of purpose. Take a long-term view. Create more leaders. Establish meaningful goals. Examine your mission. Discuss TQM with peers. Behavior and action must be

consistent with goal. Build awareness. 2. Barrier Removal It is inevitable that change will be resisted. In fact, a great deal of effort in quality management is expended in overcoming such resistance, usually by allowing change to come from individuals directly involved, rather from management. The whole idea of continuous improvement leads to continuous change. Some of these barriers are: ?. We know what they really want (without asking them). ?. Quality is not a major factor in decisions-low initial cost mentality prevails. ?. Creative accounting can increase corporate performance. ?. Can?t manufacture competitively at the low end. ?. The job of senior management is strategy, not operations. ?. Success is good, failure is bad. ?. If it isn?t broke, don?t fix it. ?. The key

disciplines from which to draw senior management are finance and marketing. ?. Increase in quality means increase in cost. ?. Thinking that time, quality, cost are the worst mutuality exclusive, at best we can only choose two out of three. The following are the steps to barrier removal: I. Identify barrier. As seen above some of these barriers may apply effecting progress. II. Place into categories. Related barriers and their systemic causes may now be analyzed. Categorization may be facilitated by using either cause-effect diagrams or quality function deployment. III. Establish priority. An objective process that is not influenced by management or hidden agenda must be developed. At this stage barriers are judged on their validity in accordance with the severity of the problem.

IV. Problem solve. This means more than symptoms removal. Sick organizations do not recover for the long term if the symptoms are masked. It is vital to address the root of the problem. The elimination of one barrier may solve many problems for example poor communication between management and staff. Keep in mind that analyzing the problem should include estimates of resources required for it solution. V. Goals and strategies for resolution. Resolution of problems may entail goals over a period of months or years. Goals should be realistic and attainable with the given resources. Strategies ensure that goals can be accomplished. Bear in mind that numerical goals as such may not be what is required. Numerical goals may also limit the amount of growth, particularly in organizations

used to working up to an average. 3.Communication Communication is the glue that binds all the techniques, practices, philosophies, and tools. Communication may be written, verbal, or nonverbal. Understanding and refining skills for each main type communication is an ongoing process for everyone. All forms of communication involve four elements: the sender, the receiver, the message, and the medium. The medium is the method of delivery, and can effect the message. It was said that “the medium is the message”, referring in part to the filtering effects that can happen to the message and how personality factors may influence our understanding (figure. 4). VI. Written Communication. Office memos and reports are the result of hundreds of hours (studies indicate anywhere from 21%