Total Quality Management Essay Research Paper What — страница 2

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customer is the most important person to the company. Customer satisfaction is the result of the number of positive and negative factors that are experienced by the customer. Organizations depend on their customers and therefore should understand current and future customer needs, meet customer requirements, and strive to exceed customer expectations. Customer satisfaction is the result of the number of positive and negative factors that are experienced by the customer. The more satisfier factors present, the higher customer satisfaction. Eliminating dissatisfiers alone (by improving processes) will not result in increased satisfaction level. It will only result in fewer dissatisfiers. A delighter factor is very positive to the customer when experienced; things must happen that

the customer considers extraordinary and is possible only if the customer is satisfied to begin witH2. For continued survival, the attention and commitment of very few dissatisfiers and more satisfiers and delighters than the competitors are necessary for achieving business success. By measuring customer satisfaction and making customer needs visible, targets can be linked to customer expectations and the performance of the organization optimized. Principle 2 ? Leadership Leaders establish unity of purpose and direction of organization. They should create and maintain the internal environment in which people can become fully involved in achieving the organization’s objectives. Changing behaviours is probably the most critical area in the process of change. People do not

necessarily resist change – they resist being changed. It is important to give people time to understand the true needs and the process of change. Leaders promote open communication and clear vision of the organization’s future. The stronger culture/values towards the market place, the less need for policy, instructions, organizational charts, etc. Leaders empower and involve people to achieve the organization’s objective. Principle 3 – Involvement of People In TQM everyone is involved in the process of making the company a successful business. Everyone in the company is responsible for producing quality goods and services and reducing the cost of quality. People at all levels are the essence of an organization and their full involvement enables their abilities to be used

for the organization’s benefit. Fully involved people will be innovative and creative in furthering the organizations objectives. It is beneficial for the organization when people are satisfied with their job and are actively involved in their personal growth and development. Principle 4 – Process Approach A desired result is achieved more efficiently when related resources and activities are managed as a process. A process is a series of steps that when combined produce a result. Processes should be managed to meet requirements and needs of both internal and external customers. Being process-orientated eventually prevents problems from occurring. Focusing on the process means that you will put the customers? needs first. That will prevent errors, reduce rework, and decrease

frustration. Principle 5 – System Approach to Management Identifying, understanding, and managing a system of inter-related processes for a given objective improve the organization’s effectiveness and efficiency. An effective system provides confidence in organization’s capability to meet customers requirements. Principle 6 – Continual Improvement Quality improvement is a continuous activity, aiming for even higher process effectiveness and efficiency. These activities often require new values and behaviour focusing on measuring customer satisfaction and acting on results. The Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle (Figure 3), by W. Edwards Deming, is commonly used when describing continual quality improvement. PDCA Cycle Figure 3. Demings PDAC Cycle Plan. As the name suggests, this is

the planning step. You plan which process you will improve, examine the data to determine possible improvements, determine how you will measure the improvement, establish a target, and decide who will be involved in the improvement effort. Do. In the do step process improvement is implemented?often as a trial run. Data is collected before, during, and after the improvement. Check. In this step the pre-improvement data is compared to the post-improvement data. This analysis provides information about whether the root cause of the unwanted variation has been corrected. Act. The act step uses the analysis from the check step to determine the next action. If the root cause was found and corrected, the improvement would be standardized to ?hold the gain? and the cycle would start