Топики для сдачи экзаменов по английскому языку — страница 2

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English, maths, history, geography, science, French, art, music, P.E., technical subjects & home economics. Toward the end of the second year pupils are asked to make their subject choices for third and forth years. Desicions on this stage are only taken after interviews involving parents, staff and the pupils themselfs. The curriculum in 3rd and 4th years consistsof compulsory section (обязательное разделение) which includes English, math and an options section made up of those subjects choosen by the pupil at the end of the second year. Optionl cources are designed to give a sound basic education. The system of higher education in Britain includes universities, colleges of education and advanced cources at various colleges. There are more than 44

universities in Britain. But not all universities are equil. They differ from one another in history and tradition. The oldest and world-known universities are Oxford and Cambridge. A university usually consists of colleges. The departments of the colleges are organized into faculties. In the university students have a series of lectures, seminars, tutorials and laboratory classes. Lectures are given to large groups of students while seminars are much smaller than lectures. Lectures and seminars are all one hour in length, laboratory classes last 2 or 3 hours. The academic year devides into 3 terms. First two termslast for 24 weeks; the 3rd term is reserved for classes and examinations and lasts for six weeks. After three years of study a university graduate will leave with the

Degree of Bachelor of Arts or Science. Student can continue to take his Master's Degree and then the Doctor's. Education in Russia.   Citizens of Russia have the right to education which is guaranteed by the Constitution. The public educational system in our country incorporates pre-school, general school, specialized secondary and higher education. Pre-school consists of kindergartens and creches. Children there learn reading, writing and arithmetic. But pre-school education isn't compulsory - children can get it at home. Compulsory education is for children from 6(7) to 17 years of age. The main link in the system of education is the general school which prepares the younger generation for life and work in modern production. There are various types of schools: general

secondary schools, schools specializing in a certain subject, high schools, lyceums and so on. Tuition in most of them is free of charge, but some new types of schools are fee-paying. The term of study in a general secondary school is 11 years and consists of primery, middle and upper stages. At the middle stage of a secondary school the children learn the basic laws of nature and society at the lessons of history, algebra, literature, physics and many others. After 9th form pupils have to sit for examinations. Also they have a choice between entering the 10th grade of a general secondary school and enroling in a specialized secondary or vocational school. Persons who finish the general secondary school, recieve a secondary education certificate, giving them the right to enter

any higher educational establishment. Entrance examinations are held in July and August. Institutions are headed by rectors; the faculties are headed by the deans. One has to study in the institute for 5 years. Higher educational institutions train students in one or several specializations. Environmental problems   The poisoning of the world's land, air, and water is the fastest-spreading disease of civilisation. It probably produces fewer headlines than wars, earthquakes and floods, but it is potentially one of history's greatest dangers to human life on earth. If present trends continue for the next several decades, our planet will become uninhabitable. Overpopulation, pollution and energy consumption have created such planet-wide problems as massive deforestation, ozone

depletion, acid rains and the global warming that is believed to be coused by the greenhouse effect. The seas are in danger. They are filled with poison: industrial and nuclear waste, chemical fertilisers and pesticides. The Mediterranean is already nearly dead; the North Sea is following. The Aral Sea is on the brink of extinction. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in the seas. Every ten minutes one kind of enimal, plant or insect dies out for ever. If nothing is done about it, one million species that are alive today will have become extinct twenty years from now. Air population is a very serious problem. In Cairo just breathing the air is life threatening- equivalent to smoking two packs of cigarettes a day. The same holds true for Mexico City