Tonkin Gulf Resolution Essay Research Paper President — страница 3

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tow unprovoked attacks by the North Vietnamese on American ships. He advocated the need for a resolution that gave him authority to use all possible action, including the use of the armed forces. Trusting the President in this time of crisis, both public opinion and votes from Congress approved the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. With the ability to look back, Johnson’s performance as crisis manager seen in light of the misinformation, and possible deception, was not as great as people in August of 1964 though it was. The unity of the office of the President enabled Johnson to act swiftly and effectively in obtaining his desired Tonkin Gulf Resolution, but also held him accountable to the outcome of the affair. Facing immense pressure, Johnson with the help of his advisors was able

to directly make decisions about how to handle the two incidents in the gulf. The solidarity of the office enabled Johnson to deploy air strikes on North Vietnam, personally address members of Congress, and make a televised appearance to the American people within 24 hours. However, he is the one person to be held accountable for his decisions. After prolonged and escalated American involvement in Vietnam, President Johnson was held accountable for using the Tonkin Gulf Resolution as a practical declaration of war. The dissatisfaction of the American people with Johnson’s decisions can be seen in his desire not to seek reelection. Acting as head of state and through the unity of his office, President Lyndon B. Johnson influenced Congress to unknowingly give him a blank check in

conducting the Vietnam War through his immediate advocacy of the Tonkin Gulf Resolution. Johnson’s accusation of unjustified attacks on American ships by the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin led to the resolution’s nearly unanimous passage in Congress three days later. Although with the passage of time the certainty of these attacks has come into question, President Johnson through his presidential powers was able to get the Tonkin Gulf Resolution passed, which gave him near free reign in conducting the Vietnam War. Bibliography (1) Robert D. Schulzinger, A Time for War: The United States and Vietnam, 1941-1975 (Oxford University Press 1997), 145-146. (2) David L. Anderson, Shadow on the White House: Presidents and the Vietnam War, 1945-1975 (University Press of Kansas

1993), 113-122. (3) Fredrik Logevall, Choosing War: The Lost Chance for Peace and the Escalation of War in Vietnam (University of California Press 1999), 196-197. (4) Eugene G. Windchy, Tonkin Gulf (Doubleday & Company, Inc. 1971), 211. (5) Logevall, 205. (6) Edwin E. Mo?se, Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War (The University of North Carolina Press 1996), 227. (7) Logevall, 204. (8) Joseph C. Goulden, Truth is the First Casualty: The Gulf of Tonkin Affair—Illusion and Reality (Rand McNally & Company 1969), 17. (9) Schulzinger, 150-151. (10) Goulden, 18.