Toltec Civilization Essay Research Paper Toltec Civilization — страница 5
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characteristically Toltec feature on both temples are the chac-mools. Both chac-mools are almost exactly the same except for different facial features (von Hagen, Sun, p. 195). Another feature similar about the two citiex is their art. In Tula, many motifs have been found depicting marching jaguars and eagles. That very same thing has been found in Chichen Itza (von Hagen, Sun, p. 196). Perhaps the most important piece of information has to do with Quetzalcoatl. Earlier, I said that he traveled to Yucatan. This is not exactly true. This has been infered by some ironic historical events. First, around 987 A.D, Quetzalcoatl was said to have left Tula. At almost the same time in Mayan history, the man named Kukulkan arived in the Yucatan. The Mayas loved him so much that they made him their king. Kukulkan then proceeded to teach them his culture. While he was doing this, the Mayas went through their won renaissance and their culture was restarted. No doubt Kukulkan had something to do with this (von Hagen, Sun, p. 332). Let us try a simple thought experiment. The Mayas are considered by archeologists to have been civilized. I do not have the time, nor the space to prove this, so we will take it as a fact. The Mayas became civilized after Kukulkan taught them his ways. It would follow that Kukulkan, himself, was civilized. Therefore, since he was originally Toltec, this would make the Toltecs, themselves, civilized. The Aztecs were by far the most popular civilization ever to arise in Mexico. Most of the accounts of the Toltecs came frome them. They held the Toltecs in the highest respect, even basing their own culture on them. When the Aztecs moved in around lake Texcoco, they found the ruins of Teotihuacan and other small cities. They were in awe of the technological level of the builders and gave them the name “Toltec,” which means “builder” or “artist” (Tompkins, p. 20). They then burned all the historical records and wrote their own, putting the Toltecs in the paramount position. They believed they were the descendants of the Toltecs (von Hagen, Aztec, p. 39). Looking at the architecture, art, customs, and religion of the Aztecs, one finds almost perfect simularity. The Aztecs took almost every thing from the Toltecs. They built the same style temples, had the same gods, used the same artistic style, and performed the same human sacrifice rituals. One even finds the familiar chac-mool atop many of the temples. The Toltec culture was so great that, not only did it travel throughout Mexico, but also traveled beyond the grave. Conclusion Not only did the Toltecs emphasize the group and excell in technology, but they also taught two tribes to become civilized. Emphasizing the group is a key factor in civilized cultures. If everyone in a group works for themselves, they are limiting their own advancement. But, if they all work for the group, the group will prosper and grow. Technology is a necessary byproduct of civilization. When people come up with ideas that will benifit the group, the ideas usually take the form of inventions. When people work in groups, the individual ideas of the people travel through the generations. These two actions, when done together, result in usable technology that benifits all. The Toltec ideals for society worked for both the Maya and the Aztecs. These cultures grew to be the two most well known civilizations in Mexico. This says a lot for the Toltecs. It says that the Toltecs were the fathers of civilization. When Cortez landed in the midst of the Aztecs, what he was witnessing was the enduring Toltec culture. He then saw a human sacrifice and decided the fate of these barbaric people. A civilized culture is one that does not destroy every other culture because of different beliefs. One must wonder, which is more civilized: human sacrifice or genocide. One small tidbit about dates. When Quetzalcoatl sailed off to the west, he left the Mayas with a prophesy. “On the recurrence of this date, 1-Reed, I will return to Mexico.” I was wondering if Quetzalcoatl ever did return and did some research on the subject. Looking at the dates, I made a startling discovery. The year 1-Reed falls on the year 1512, the year Cortez landed in Mexico. This was a haunting revelation, and can be interpreted in many ways. One can say that it was coincidence, but I don’t choose to think so. I think Quetzalcoatl knew what he was saying, but encrypted the message. I think he knew what was going to happen. . . BIBLIOGRAPHY History of the World. Bureau Development, Inc., 1992. Burland, C. A. The Gods of Mexico. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1967: 32, 34, 40. Gruzinski, Serge. The Aztecs- Rise and Fall of an Empire.