Tobacco Paper Essay Research Paper Every day — страница 2

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men (Glantz). The first time the health dangers of smoking were formally brought to the American public s attention was in December, 1953. Experiments done by Drs. Ernst Wynder and Evarts Graham and their colleagues at the Sloan Kettering Institute in New York demonstrated that a large percent of mice developed cancerous tumors when their skins were painted with condensed tobacco smoke, or tar (Hilts). This was considered by many as adequate verification that smoke would do the same to human lungs since they, too, are made of skin. The response in the U.S. was immediate: in less than two years, consumption dropped to 384 billion cigarettes per year – down from 416 billion in 1952 (Hilts). However, these mouse skin-painting experiments had their most tremendous effect on the

tobacco companies themselves. On December 15, 1953, for the first time in history, the head executives of the leading tobacco companies in the industry met in order to devise an emergency plan. The leaders of the market were the same then as they are today: Philip Morris, R.J. Reynolds, Brown and Williamson, American Tobacco, U.S. Tobacco, and Benson and Hedges (Hilts). The industry s main concern in response to the medical evidence was to make sure that consumers carried on smoking (Taylor). By 1975, Brown & Williamson already had knowledge of the erroneous reputation of low-tar cigarettes for over a year: Compensation study conducted by Imperial Tobacco Co. shows that a smoker adjusts his smoking habits when smoking cigarettes with low nicotine to duplicate his normal

cigarette nicotine intake. (Glantz). The Surgeon General did not conduct a study on compensation until 1980; the study was not confirmed until 1983. Despite their knowledge of compensation, the tobacco industry advertised its tow tar, low nicotine brands as less hazardous than the higher-yield brands, and succeeded in deceiving the public once again. Even today, over 60 percent of the market is lead by these low-yield brands – up from two percent in 1967. A survey in 1993 found that 48.6 percent of adults think that smoking low-tar is safer while, in actuality, it has found to be more hazardous to health (Segal). It was not until1988 that the Surgeon General, C. Everett Koop, concluded that Cigarettes and other forms of tobacco are addicting, that Nicotine is the drug in

tobacco that causes the addiction, and that The pharmacologic and behavioral processes that determine tobacco addiction are similar to those that determine addiction to drugs such as heroin and cocaine (Glantz). Although the industry has detailed knowledge of the effects of nicotine and it has recognized, internally, that it is in the business of selling nicotine, the industry publicly insists that nicotine is not addictive and is in tobacco merely for taste purposes; there are several reasons for this position. One of the arguments by the tobacco industry in product liability lawsuits is that tobacco companies should not be held responsible for the diseases associated with smoking since smoking is a matter of personal choice. If the industry admitted that nicotine is addictive,

it would not be able to claim that people can choose to stop smoking anytime they want. In addition, admitting that nicotine is addictive would undoubtedly qualify nicotine as a drug and therefore subject to FDA regulation. This would ultimately lead to government policies regarding tobacco advertisement and promotion (Glantz). So, instead of tobacco companies admitting – what they knew before anybody else and know better than anybody else – that nicotine is addictive, they assert that nicotine s sole purpose in tobacco is for taste. Brown &Williamson s chairman and CEO, Thomas Sandefur, testified in 1994 that [he does] not believe that nicotine is addictive. . . nicotine is a very important constituent in the cigarette for taste (Glantz). However, despite many similar

testimonies by tobacco executives, there is no evidence in any of the companies documents that nicotine was ever handled by the taste departments of the companies (Hilts). Furthermore, Philip Morris documents show that No one has ever become a cigarette smoker by smoking cigarettes without nicotine (Hilts). Ross Johnson, while the chief executor of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco, did his duty and denied the addictive nature of smoking. After he left the industry, however, he was plain about it: Of course it s addictive. That s why you smoke the stuff (Hilts). Next to addiction, the tobacco industry depends on advertising as its most powerful tool in maintaining its success. Addiction is what keeps people smoking day after day; advertising cigarettes with delusive images is what causes