Tibet Essay Research Paper Tibet is a — страница 2

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many hardships ( Executive Summary ). Ever since the Chinese invasion, Tibet has had many troubles. One of them is militarisation. Many Chinese generals with thousands of troops entered Tibet. The military brought fear to the Tibetan people and also ruined their economy. The army would demand food from the Tibetans. At first the army only demanded a little food, but they eventually demanded such a large amount that the price of food inflated to ten times the original value. Chinese people would also burn the bones of dead animals in the Tibetan holy city of Lhasa. This is very offensive to the Tibetan people and their religion. In Tibet, even butchers were considered outcasts for killing animals (Dalai Lama 20). Yet another crime of the Chinese government was population

transfers, where a large number of Chinese were relocated to Tibet. China even has government incentive programs for Chinese to move from different Chinese provinces to Tibet. Thus, Tibetans who still live in Tibet are quickly becoming second class citizens ( Executive Summary ). Furthermore, population transfers not only violate human rights, but international law as well. The Fourth Geneva Convention in 1949 prohibits population transfer without full and informed consent. Population transfer is also prohibited by the United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and the Protection of Minorities Resolutions, and by the UNPO Conference on Human Rights Dimensions of Population Transfer. In addition to these atrocities, the Chinese have horribly violated the rights

of the Tibetan people (Dalai Lama 78). Due to the violation of human rights, over 1.2 million Tibetans have died between 1951 and 1979; and roughly 80,000 have been exiled. When Tibet was an independent state, there was no famine at all. After the invasion though, the military forced Tibetans to sell their personal food reserves. The food was used in the state buffer stocks. Contrary to statements made by the Chinese government, several organizations have confirmed human rights violations against the Tibetan people, such as large and methodical abuses against Tibetans. A few of these organizations are Amnesty International, Asia Watch, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, the UN, and Pax Christi. The international concern for Tibet has been expanding ever since the

United Nations report, giving them more and more evidence of human rights violation in Tibet. ( Executive Summary ) Moreover the religious rights of Tibet have been violated. For a long time, China has been trying to manipulate the religious hierarchy of Tibet. The Chinese claim to have this right because of an agreement made over 2 centuries ago. Tibet was invaded by Nepal, and the Tibetans nobles asked the Chinese Emperor for assistance. The Chinese helped drive the Nepalese out of Tibet, but in exchange the Emperor demanded a say in the selection of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama. The Chinese government claims that this gives them the historic right to ratify the Lamas of Tibet. Beijing tries to use reincarnation to their advantage, by finding newly reincarnated Lamas and

raising them to be loyal to the Chinese government, doing whatever the Chinese government wants. Beijing hopes that by doing this they can keep the Tibetan people under their control. ( A Buddha Busts Out ) One of the positions of reincarnation that the Chinese government is currently trying to use is the Panchen Lama. The Panchen Lama was first incarnated in the 14th century AD, and he is only second in rank to the Dalai Lama. Six years after the last Panchen Lama died in 1986, monks identified his reincarnation as a young boy. After his identification, Chinese authorities came and took him away. The Chinese replaced him with a Chinese boy who they claim is the real Panchen, few Tibetans agree. The original boy was never seen again. ( Day of the Living Buddhas ) Another boy who

is being manipulated is Soinam Puncog. He is a two year old who was identified as the Reting Lama. He was formally enthroned in January of 2000. The Reting Lama is a high-ranking Lama of Tibet (Dalai Lama 18). The Chinese government wants him to grow up loyal to the Beijing government and independent of the Tibetan government. The Beijing government hopes to use the Reting Lama to counter the political power of the Dalai Lama ( Day of the Living Buddhas ). The 17th Karmapa is another young Tibetan who the Chinese tried to manipulate. The Karmapa is a 14 year old. He was taught to be loyal to Beijing, however he fled China to go to the Tibet in Exile government in India. He had planned his escape because he found it hard to serve Buddhism and the Tibetan people with the Chinese