Theory Of Music In Ancient Chinese Philosophy — страница 7

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Yue and to the north are Liang and Sung. Thus if he did not see the source, how could he know it (for sure) ? The institutionaization of Lu and confiramtion of the pitches were verified empirically based on the natural sciences. The observation of “Qi” (known as blowing the ashes) confirms the accuracy of the pitch-pipes, and the “Three-Part Subtraction-Addition,” which follows natural laws, was used to determine the pitches of the pitch-pipe that were the basis of weights and measures. The fact that by performing the pitch-pipes, the performer can tell the result of warfare signifies nothing but the projection of human beings’ wishes and wants onto nature. This is the case of superstitious magicalims whose underlying sources Jikang debunks. The performer who blows on

the pitch-pipe is from Jin and the question arises of how the wind of Chu can enter into a performer’ s pitch-pipe who is from Jin such that it changes the tones. Jikang continues that “master Kuang alone was widely learned in many things and himself possessed the knowledge to recognize the signs of victory and defeat, but, wishing to set the minds of the masses at ease, he attributed it to the divine and mysterious Po Changxian in his guarantee of long life to Duke Jing.” II-B. A critique of music theory as a carrier of political virtue. The characteristic of Confucianism’s music theory lies in its claim to raise political accomplishments of a regime and reveal the dignity of the ruler so that it will draw voluntary obedience from the people. In this regard, music is

nothing but a political instrument. The premise underlining this political purpose being that music can carry the personality of sage king. Jikang refuses to accept this Confucianist viewpoint: “When Duke Jie stayed in the Lu principality, he collected the poetry and observed rites and thus came to know the social customs of that principality. And When Confucius listened to Shao music, he exclaimed that beauty and good of sage king Shun was identical.” These are the loci classici of Confucianist music theory. Jikang opposes the idea of tones as the source of the efficacy of music. The accomplishments of sage kings come to be known and understood after the lines of music are heard and appreciated. He distinguishes between music language composed of melodies and the words of

songs, and he does this because he thinks that these contain their own different principles of autonomy. Jikang refutes the Confucianist claim that the personality of sage king is immanent in music. In the 2nd debate, the guest from Chin, a proponent of Confucianism says the following: That the eight regions may have different customs, and crying and singing might be totally different. But people’s feelings of grief and joy can certainly be perceived. When the heart is moved on the inside, then music comes forth from the heart. Although you entrust it to other tones, or express it with a surplus of sounds, the skilled listener and examiner will necessarily understand it; this will not cause him to err. In ancient times Po Ya strummed his lute and Chung Chuzi knew what was on

his mind. The criminal laborer struck the musical stones, and Chuzi knew he was grieved. What this implies is that when you are grieved, your music will certainly express grieved hearts and produce plaintive tunes manifesting grief and sorrow of the heart. This is a natural response and cannot be avoided, but only those with spirit-like insight are able keenly to perceive it. Thus you cannot conclude that because you see the many variations in regional custom, music has in it either grief nor joy. As to this proposition, Jikang refutes it because it contains a logical contradiction. If a sage king’s personality is carried in music, the music itself should have its number fixed and passed onto later generations. For example, music Shao must have fixed number and expresses the

personalities of both sage king Yao and Shun. In this music Shao, the fixed number cannot be mixed up with other forms of songs, nor it can be performed in other forms of number. But the logic of this proposition is in violation of the statement of the guest from Jin in the 2nd debate, which claims that there is no fixed law of vocal sound and thus that emotions of grief and joy can be expressed by using other forms of vocal sound. Jikang criticizes the principles which motivate this contradiction in Confucian thinking. “ These are both false records (made up by) vulgar pedants. They fabricated these accounts, wishing to make sacred their affairs. They wanted the whole world to misunderstand the way of music. Hating the fact that they had not met this rare listener in their own