Theory Of Music In Ancient Chinese Philosophy — страница 6

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posseses what is the eqivaletnt of a supernatural capacity to oversee both the natural order and human society. The distinction between the noble and the ignoble, or between the old and the young, originates from music such that human beings now grow transparent to music. This line of thought, insofar as it identifies the source of music with that of the universe, is not unique to Confucianism. The “Yueji” is basically founded upon Confucianist music theory, but it incorporates Daoism, the Science of the Divination (Yixue), Yin-Yang thought, and Wuxing thought. Hence, this attempt to connect with the foundation of metaphysics is a result of the influences of both Daoism and modest naturalism. But, the defining characteristic of Confucianism the way it explains music –

namely, by attributing human emotions and value to the condensation and dissipation of all creatures of the universe. According to this Confucianist thought, human emotions such as joy, anger, sorrow, and pleasure, are the result of the condensation and dissipation of “qi”(matter-energy). Human emotions and the sounds of nature arise from the same source, thus human emotions are produced as sounds of nature and these sounds are transmitted to others who are composed of same quality and form. This results in the emotional correspndence between human beings. In this context, rulers can read the hearts of the people via music and likewise, and the dispositions of rulers are transmitted to the people. Herein, Confucianism attaches Confucian virtue to the Heavenly order.

Confucianists put their volition on a par with the order and meaning of heaven. As a result, creatures have a teleological volition and voices house human emotions and will power. This is the core of Confucianist politeness music theory that posits that music has in it grief and joy (shengyougailelun). Sound connotes subjectives human emotions and fully manifests the virtue of sage. This politeness music theory (shengyougailelun) was handed down to Yuanji (210-263). Yuanji also thinks that this politeness music theory can forcibly drive home the social efficacy of music. His theory of music was in juxtaposition with Jikang’s theory of music. II. A critique of Confucianist music theory- Jikang’s music theory Jikang’s music theory (Shengwuaile lun: “Discourse on the

Nonemotional Nature of Sound”), by contrast, insists that music has in it nor grief or joy, and is thus a frontal critique of Confucianist music theory. The reason for regarding Jikang’s music theory as the first one of aesthetics in China is that his theory is not only based on Daoist naturalism, but critizes the Confucianist music theory with rich analyses and logical suasion. Jikang’s ‘Shengwuaile lun” is in the form of a debate between the Host of Dong-ye and a guest from Jin, with the guest defending the tradditional view. The Host of Dong-ye represents Jikang himself and a guest from Jin embodies Confucianist music theoritician. In the following part, I will first deal with the incantatory magicism of music. Second, Jikang’s critical position toward an assertion

that music reflects the highest virtue in politics will be analyzed. Third, a description and analysis of the claim that there exists a correspondence between emtions and sound will follow. II-A. A critique of the belief in the magicalism of music First, take a look at the story of Music Master Kuang. Music Master Kuang blew on the pitch-pipes and knew that the airs of the south were noncombative, that the army of Chu would be defeated. As a critique of this story and its implication, Jikang broaches the underlying principle of LuLu (pitches, representing yang and yin respectively). Lulu is a measure of the “qi” in four seasons. When in a certain season, qi will move, and this prompts the response of lulu and this consequently cause the ashes within “guan”.????? This

effect is the natural result of nature, not of human action. As a result of the ‘Three-Part Subtraction-Addition” (Sanfensunyi), lulu that are created up and down will smooth out the harmony of five “sheng” and places orderly state into it. But each lu has its own sound, and even when blown in winter each sound will not lose any its uniqueness. Jikang in his 4th debate raises doubts about the magical power of Music Master Kuang. According to him, when Kuang blew on the pitch-pipes, it raised the doubts as to whether it was truly a qi from Chu because Jin and Chu are separated by a thousand li. His doubts raised the following question: If Kuang truly knew the sound was an air of Chu that came and entered his pitch-pipes, then it should be noted that south of Chu are Wu and