Theory Of Music In Ancient Chinese Philosophy — страница 4

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Given this, when the family practiced the wuyue, it not only represented for him the practicing of yue (music), but constituted an encroachment upon the imperial authority which was represented by yue (music). In this line of thought, Confucius correlates yue (music) with the political authority it represents, an idea that can be found in many parts of “the Analects”. In Book 7, for example, we find the following: “When the Master was in the state of Qi he heard the Shao music, he for three months after did not even notice the taste of meat. He said, ‘I never imagined that music could be so sublime.’” Further, Confucius says that music should use sage-king Shun’s shao music. The reason for his admiration for the Shao music was not merely the beauty of that form of

music, but also the way the sage kings’ righteousness and “ren spirits” were incorporated into it. Thus, what counts for Confucius is not the joy drawn from the harmonious interconnectedness of various elements of the music, rather the appropriateness of the message of music, or even the extent to which the spirits contained in the music can relate to his own ideals. Confucius also exemplified this tendency in his insistence that it would have been better to get rid of Master Zheng’s music. Master Zheng’s music was one of favorite musics that former tyrannies liked most, thus if his contemporary kings were drawn into it, Confucius reasoned, their imperial rule might collapse. This example demonstrates that Confucius’ perception of music was more influenced by the

historical result of Master Zheng’s music (a result that was at loggerheads with his idealized view of the Zhou dynasty administration) than by its formal elements. Added to this belief is a further belief that music reflects the personality of the emperor. The thought that shao could help one to inherit the spirit of Shun, furthermore, is in congruence with Confucius view that the music enjoyed by one of former tyrannies should be rejected and discontinued. Confucian political philosophy stresses enlightenment and nurturing. The edifying effect of music enables the people to voluntarily agree to certain social norms. The message content of music that the ruler wants to propagates is actually transmitted via the lyrics or “poetry,” and in this process Confucianism assumes

that the content of music is immanently contained in the sounds of music. In the Analects, Confucius says that “If he is not an emperor, he will not talk about rites or rituals, nor will he create music “. In view of the social influences of music, the control of the ruler over music is conjoined with his authority over ethical norms. Confucianism argues that the personality of the virtuous person is contained in music. Yet, Confucius says that “As for wu music, although it is practiced beautifully, its goodness is not fully fulfilled “. This saying represents Confucius’ desire to subject aesthetic consciousness to ethical consciousness, and it simultaneously signifies that goodness and beauty should be appreciated independently from one other. In other words, this

shows that to strengthen his own sense of independence, the sage as a social mananger elevates and enlightens his aesthetic sense. I-C. Xunzi’s theory on correspndence between emotion and sound. The Confucian proposition that music reflects virtue is persistently applied in Xunzi’s theory on music. “Music is something which the sage kings found joy in, for it has the power to make good the hearts of the people, to influnece men deeply, and to reform their ways and customs with facility.” Xunzi recognizes that music transforms and moves the hearts of the people. In his thesis on music, Xunzi says that “music is joy, an emotion which man cannot help but feel at times. Since man cannot help feeling joy, his joy must find an outlet in voice and an expression in movement.”

Here he argues that music is something man cannot help but feel. The joy is created by music’s voice and movement. Music , therefore, is perceived to be inseparable from original human nature. Music is created and produced following the needs of human nature. Namely, the rationale for music and its origin lies in the human heart. Therefore, the emotions of human beings produce a voice. In other words, all kinds of sound set its foundation in the particular emotions of each human being, Voice, denoting some emotions, transforms and gives rise to certain emotions in human heart. Xunzi also argues that music that is created due to the needs of human nature should be pliable and revisable according to norms. According to his view, human desires are drawn from nature, thus all human