Theoretical Reflections Essay Research Paper Theoretical Reflections — страница 3

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approach found in this book regaring leadership is called the situational approach. The situational approach looks at the specific situations and the tasks associated with it to determine whether or not unique leadership characteristics could be seen as being essential. Hollander looks at this appproach as "It is in the nature of situational requirements that they call forth certain expectations for leadership, and these may be fulfilled by various individuals in the situation." (p. 5) This book also differenciates between the trait approach and the situational approach by stating, "…the situational approach conceives of leadership in terms of function performed, rather than in terms of persisting traits of the leader." (p. 5) Path-Goal Theory (Robert House)

Robert House suggests that the leader in a number of ways can affect the performance, satisfaction, and motivation of a group: Offering rewards for the achievement of performance goals. Clarifying paths towards these goals. Removing performance obstacles. A person may do these by adopting a certain leadership style, according to the situation: Directive leadership – Specific advice is given to the group and ground rules are established. Supportive leadership – Good relations exist with the group and sensitivity to subordinates’ needs is shown. Participative leadership – Decision making is based on group consultation and information is shared with the group. Achievement-oriented leadership – Challenging goals are set and high performance is encouraged while showing

confidence in the groups’ ability. Supportive behavior increases group satisfaction, particularly in stressful situations, while directive behavior is suited to ambiguous situations. It is also suggested that leaders who have influence upon their superiors can increase group satisfaction and performance. Vroom-Yetton Leadership Model This model suggests the selection a leadership style for making a decision. There are five decision-making styles: Autocratic 1 – Problem is solved using information already available. Autocratic 2 – Additional information is obtained from group before leader makes decision. Consultative 1 – Leader discusses problem with subordinates individually, before making a decision. Consultative 2 – Problem is discussed with the group before

deciding. Group 2 – Group decides upon problem, with leader simply acting as chair. The style is chosen by the consideration of seven questions, which form a decision tree. This is described in Leadership and Decision Making, by V.H.Vroom and P.W.Yetton, pp.41-42, published by University of Pittsburgh Press, 1973. The Transactional Model Hollander, E. P. (1964) Leaders, Groups, and Influence. New York: Oxford University Press. The transactional approach by Edwin Hollander (1964) states that "the interaction between a particular leader and a particular follower will change over time based on such things as the changing confidence level of the leader and of the follower, and other environmental changes that may be subtle and are often difficult to document." A

"behind the scenes" leader, whose behavior prevents a crisis from happening in the first place, might go unnoticed, unappreciated and unstudied. This kind of leader develops the strength of others and furthers the effectiveness of the organization. Hollander, Edwin P. (1978); Leadership Dynamics – a practical guide to effective relationships. New York: The Free Press (Macmillan Publishing Co.,Inc) Hollander uses this book to illustrate his points on leadership and to emphasize his views presented in as the Transactional Approach of leadership. His primary focus is to show leadership as being something which is dependent on many different forces, few of which any designated leader may have control over. Though he emphasizes characteristics which are useful to leaders,

he also explores how the same characteristics can hinder the leaders effectiveness - which leadership is, for Hollander, measured by. Along with characteristics the leader may or may not hold, Hollander explores characteristics of the followers and the situation. To be credible as a leader is essential, as is the ability to balance the importance placed on task initiation and group relationships. Hollander gives examples through out the book sighting how essential a complete understanding of the situation, and oneUs co-workers/ subordinates, in order to accomplish a goal (another much needed element in effective leadership). Though he stresses the importance of the realization of all these aspects by the leader, Hollander also further develops the role the follower plays in