Theoretical Reflections Essay Research Paper Theoretical Reflections — страница 2

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the other, to an extent. Situational Theory (Paul Hersey & Kenneth Blanchard) This theory suggests that leadership style should be matched to the maturity of the subordinates. Maturity is assessed in relation to a specific task and has two parts: Psychological maturity – Their self-confidence and ability and readiness to accept responsibility. Job maturity – Their relevant skills and technical knowledge. As the subordinate maturity increases, leadership should be more relationship-motivated than task-motivated. For four degrees of subordinate maturity, from highly mature to highly immature, leadership can consist of: Delegating to subordinates. Participating with subordinates. Selling ideas to subordinates. Telling subordinates what to do Lord, Robert G. and Maher Karen

J. (1991) Leadership and Information Processing: Linking Perceptions and Performance. Massachusetts: Unwin Hyman, Inc. Situational Model of Hersey and Blanchard. – emphasize the importance for the leader to consider the stage of organizational development of each of their followers and to adapt their type of leadership to the followers developmental level. Hersey and Blanchard talk about the leader and emphasize the influence of their actions on the organization, through their followers. The leader can compare to the influence of the executive in Lord and Maher’s theories. Both of the theories emphasize the influence of style or actions of the leader on the outcome of the follower or organization. Lord and Maher in Leadership and Information Processing: Linking Perceptions

and Performance (1991) emphasize that executive level actions can affect an organization’s performance. Their methodology incorporates leadership and information processing, perceptual and social processes, leadership and organizational performance, and stability, change, and information processing. Their approach to understanding leadership is to develop a comprehensive theory addressing both leadership perceptions and organizational performance. They believe that "theory in any scientific area is an ongoing social process and emphasize the possibilities of change," "to understand leadership perceptions it is essential to understand how people process information." (p13). Lord and Maher discuss direct and indirect effects of leadership on performance,

leadership succession, a model of organizational performance, and executive leadership and organizational performance. In discussing direct and indirect effects of leadership Lord and Maher explain the differences between these two means of leadership. Direct means refer to "those leadership activities which explicitly influence the behavior of subordinates or the strategies of organizations." (p169) This is the basis for most existing leadership and management theory. Indirect means involve "establishing certain conditions, such as socialization processes or culture, which then affect subordinate and organizational performance." (p. 171) Indirect means form a powerful mode of affecting subordinate and organizational performance. Lord and Maher then describe

the effects of direct and indirect means of leadership in lower and executive levels of an organization. In short, their conclusion is that high-level executives may have difficulty being perceived as leaders. Oliver, D. L. (1955). A Solomon Island Society, Kinship and Leadership Among the Siuai of Bougainville. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Douglas Oliver (1955) in his study of a Solomon Island society tells stories that the Siuai leader is comfortable dealing with all the aspects of Siuai life. This is an example of situational methodology, which is one that states that the situation is the main component of what determines what a leader will do. DePree, M. (1989) Leadership Is An Art. New York: Dell The Situational Model of Vroom and Yetton – centers on the

interaction between situational variables and the characteristics of the leader and/or the follower. Max DePree (1989) identifies "roving leaders", who use their special talents and respond swiftly and effectively. The example that he uses is a doctor dealing with an emergency situation. He says, "Roving leaders are those indispensable people in our lives who are there when we need them" (DePree, 1989, p. 48). These people take charge in varying degrees when a situation needs immediate attention, structure and action. Hollander, E. P. (1964) Leaders, Groups, and Influence. New York: Oxford University Press. Another aspect of this approach found in this book is that persons function as leaders in a particular time and place, and both these can vary. A second