The work of the accountant

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The work of the accountant. The work of the accountant is said to be diverse in nature. Basically, it deals with recording, summarizing, analyzing and verifying business transactions in books of accountants. The task of examining and analyzing accounts is one of great significance. It makes it possible to provide information necessary for economic management. There is usually an unlimited supply of data available in an enterprise. The key problem facing accountants is the selection for presenting to the management only meaningful information. And the accountant is effective if he supplies information promptly and in a clear language. Great changes are known to have taken place over recent years. The role of the accountant has changed and his functions have deepened and

widened. The old book – keeper is a legend now. He was described as a dried – up narrow – minded person ignorant of everything but tedious operations with figure. The modern accountant acts as an adviser to the management and helps the latter in decision – making. Under modern conditions only accountants can minimize the degree of uncertainly inherent in every business decision. Accountants enable the management to assess their own performance. They also help them device ways to improve their efficiently. The birth of accounting in Russia. Accounting emerged in the eleventh century in Kiev an Russia. In emerged through the development of state and monastic under taking. It also emerged thought the expansion of trading and related credit activities. The state and monastic

economic entity presumed the use of the inventory schedule. Then it was the basis of all accounting. The chief task consisted in Keeping a record of objects so as to make possible an accurate checking of the physical stock. At that time there appeared the current account, initially in trade where a significant number of persons were involved. From the seventeenth century in Russia there evolved a rather complicated system of agricultural accounting. The accounting extended not only to land, herds, crops, seeds and implements, but also people – serfs. In connection with the reforms introduced by Peter I there occurred a significant change in the organization of accounting. During his reign there was published the first official document containing references to accounting –

military statute. By the end of the reign of Peter I there had been created large industrial enterprises. Such large undertakings required an appropriately different organization of accounting. The first official document dealing seriously with the organization of accounting was the Admiralty Regulation. The reforms of Peter I had a great influence on the development of accounting. Accounting in Tsarist Russia. The development of industrial accounting in Russia is inseparably linked with the names of N. Emelyanov and S. Ivanov. The first book to deal with industrial accounting was Emelyanov’s “Production Exercises in Accounting for Home Trade and Manufacturing”. In the book there was proposed a special cost account for processing commodities. S.F.Ivanov work was General

Principles of Double – Entry book – keeping for Executives Concerned with Accounting Mercantile and Industrial Affairs. It was the first major work on the topic. It also contained some remarkable pages on the world history of a number of systems of cost determination. His principal idea was that only direct expenditure should comprise cost. It later provided the basis for a number of systems of cost determination. Feldgausen’s “Norms Factory Reforming” was no less significant. In this book it was first proposed that work undertaken and work completed would be recorded at predetermined stable prices. The cost deviations had to be collected and written off to the profit and loss account. The idea was later placed at the basis of standard costing. At the same time very