The Violation Of Personal Space And The — страница 2

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research was to observe whether lone individuals would behave in a avoidance way quicker if their personal space was violated by one person than when it was violated by a number of people. The hypotheses are: H2-it is predicted that individual will be likely to avoid their personal space being violated by three people than by one. Ho-there will be no difference in the avoidance behaviour of individual whether their personal space is violated by one person or by a number of people. METHOD The research was a participant observation design. The variables are: 1) The number of violators, which has two levels: a) 1 person b) 3 people 2) The behaviour of the participants, which has two levels: a) Avoidance b) Non-avoidance The hypotheses are: Hi-it is predicted that individual will be

likely to avoid their personal space being violated by three people, than by one. Ho-there will be no difference in the avoidance behaviour of individual whether their personal space is violated by one person or by a number of people. SUBJECTS Four students were observed in the research. They were all North London University students. They were observed in the M-floor of Learning canter using opportunity sampling. They were not aware that they were taking part in the research. APPARATUS AND MATERIALS The observation was conducted by a group of observers. The research took place in the M-floor of Learning centre. The hall research took three hours to be completed, from 9.00a.m to 12.00a.m. All the participants were sitting in tables and they were studying. The tables were for two,

four and six people. They were rectangular tables that were separated by cubicles. They were not very wide. The research was conducted in tables for four people and to each side of the table were two chairs .One observer had a stop-watch to keep the time and another one had a note book to note the participants behaviour. PROCEDURE The whole participants were 128 but each group had to observe 4 people. The research was conducted in the M-floor of Learning Centre of North London University. The observers were five psychology students of UNL. The participants were four students of UNL and they were not aware that a research was taken place on their behaviour. The research took place at morning time at 9.00a.m to 12p.m. One of the observers had to hold the time that was needed to

characterize the behaviour of the participants as avoidance or non-avoidance. One other had to keep notes of the reaction that each participant had when his/her personal space was invaded. From the other three observers one was taking part in all four trials. The other two were in the group trial. The observers were dressed informal as usual students. The time was kept from the point that the observer sat in the chair. If the participant left before ten minute, his behaviour was characterised as avoidance. If during these ten minutes, the participant had not left or had left and return before ten minutes his behaviour was characterised as non-avoidance. In the first participant, the observer went and sat in the opposite side of the table diagonally. One observer was keeping time

and one was keeping notes. The participant start looking the invader as it was annoyed from its presence. The participant stopped keeping notes and she was kinetic. After two minutes had passed, she started putting here books in a column and after eight minutes, she left. Participant s personal space was invaded and it was shown with avoidance. In the next trial three observers sat in another table were another participant was studying. The participant showed discomfort and after four minutes, left. It was again avoidance. After that one observer sat in a table, that one participant was studying. The observer sat diagonal in the opposite side of the table. The participant looked the observer in a strange way and continued to study without showing any sigh of being disturbed.

Non-avoidance had occurred. In the fourth and last trial three observers sat in a table were another participant was studying. The participant left at the third minute, went to take a book, and returned in the eight minute. His behaviour was non-avoidance. RESULTS The level of data is nominal. As it can be noticed from the results of the chi-square test, the chi-square is 5.375 with p-value=0.020