The University Of Oxford Essay Research Paper — страница 3

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forty days, and will not be delivered without grievous ransom both to their common chest and the injured party, so that it grievously seems to the commonality that there is not one law for the clerks and the laymen (Leff 86). These are just a small number of the wrong doings committed against the people who lived in the town of Oxford. Oxford students in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries were taught in a different way than college students today. There were also no specific courses like History, Mathematics, and Biology etc (Story 4). Instead the students at Oxford were taught to be well-rounded individuals (Story 4). During a student s time at Oxford he attended lectures on any of the following categories: law, medicine, theology and the seven arts. At the end of student s

studies at Oxford he had to take an oral exam in order to receive his master (Story 4). So as one can see, a student at Oxford University had to have a great deal of discipline to be able to achieve his goals. There were four different topics taught at Oxford University in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Leff 127). They may differ in regulations and the time taken to gain a master in one subject to another, but they all consist of very difficult and thorough material. Theology was the most revered of the subjects taught, due to its goals of understanding our purpose in life and life itself. Next there is law, which was probably the most studied of all the subjects at Oxford. Then there is Medicine, which was well needed and well taught at the University. Finally, the

seven arts, which took the least amount of time to obtain a master but were very widely used through out the world. The history of theology at Oxford University has been well preserved. Gordon Leff, author of the book Paris and Oxford Universities in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries, believes that there are several factors that contributed toward such preservation of the study of theology at Oxford. He had this to say about the issue at both Oxford University and rival Paris University: the theological faculties of both universities have survived, partly because of the nature of the subject, partly because its members were older and spent over twice as long there as in the arts faculty, and partly because of the nature of the course (Leff 160-161). Theology at Oxford

University in the thirteen and fourteenth centuries was based on the Bible and the Sentences (Leff 164). The Sentences were written by Peter Lombard and consisted of four books discussing the topics of God, Creation, Christ, and the Sacraments (Leff 164). Theology attracted the purest thinkers and those who were prepared to spend a large portion of their lives debating and speculating on abstract questions, which had no direct relevance outside of the university and religious areas. The number of students who achieved masters in theology was very small because of the degree of difficulty of the subject. In the late thirteenth century and the first two decades of the fourteenth century only about twenty students receive their license in theology from Oxford (Leff 163). However,

those involved in theology did receive the highest honors. Law is the area of study at Oxford that attracted the wealthiest people and promised the most lucrative returns. At Oxford there was the study of civil and then canon law (Leff 178). Before being permitted to study canon law one first had to swear to have taken three years of courses in civil law (Leff 178-179). It took a student of law at Oxford six years to earn a bachelor and five more years to obtain a license to practice law (Leff 178). Law was probably the most widely studied subject at Oxford, with one of the highest demands in the world outside of the University. Medicine was another of the main courses taught at Oxford, which also promised profitable rewards and was very much needed in the world. The study of

medicine at Oxford took four years to acquire a bachelor and either six or eight for a license, depending on whether or not the student had a master in the arts (Leff 180). Also to achieve a license in medicine one had to pass an exam that consisted mainly of ancient Arabian traditions (Leff 180). After getting a license one had to lecture at the University for a year before he was permitted to practice in the outside world (Leff 180). The arts were also taught at Oxford University. There are seven of these arts and they are as follows: grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic and music, astronomy, moral philosophy, and metaphysics (Leff 146). The arts were mainly considered to be a stepping-stone on the way to another higher course. The course of arts had many different regulations