The United States of America 2

  • Просмотров 311
  • Скачиваний 5
  • Размер файла 17

Australia Australia is lying south-east of Asia, between the Pacific and Indian oceans. It is the world's smallest continent which is almost completely surrounded by ocean expanses. Its total area is 7,682,300 The continent of Australia is divided into four general topographic regions: a low, sandy eastern coastal plain, the eastern highlands, the central plain, and the western plateau. Although Australia has a wide diversity of climatic conditions, the climate of Australia is generally warm and dry, with no extreme cold and little frost. It changes from comfortably mild in the south to hot in the central inferior and north. The total population in 1986 was about 16 mln people with the average population density of about 2 persons per Most Australians are of

British or Irish ancestry. More than 99% of the population speaks English. The capital of Australia is Canberra. Australia has a federal parliamentary government. The Australian federation was formed on January 1, 1901, from six former British colonies, which thereupon became states. The Australian constitution combines the traditions of British parliamentary monarchy with important elements of the US federal system. Powers of the federal government are enumerated and limited. The government consists of the British sovereign and the Australian Parliament. Australia is the world's largest wool producer and one of the world's largest wheat exporters. The main sources of foreign earnings are wool, food and minerals which also provide raw materials for home processing industry. New

Zealand New Zealand is situated in the southwest Pacific Ocean on two large islands: the North Island and the South Island. Its total area is 268,112 Less than 1/4 of the territory of the country lies below the 200 m contour line. The South Island is significantly more mountainous than the North Island. New Zealand has a temperate,moist ocean climate without marked seasonal variations in temperature or rainfall. The total population in 1986 was about 3.3 mln people with the average population density of about 12 persons per About 85 % of the population is classified as Europeans. Most of them are of British descend. English is the universal language. The capital of New Zealand is Wellington. Like the United Kingdom New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy.

Officially the head of the state is the British Queen (or the King) whose representative, the governor-general, is appointed for a five-year term. The government of New Zealand is democratic and modeled on that of the United Kingdom. The economy of New Zealand has traditionally been based on pastoral farming. The last decades seen a large expansion in the light industries. New Zealand draws many thousands of tourists to its shores because of the beauty, diversity, and compactness of its natural attractions. Canada Canada consists of almost all of the North American continent north of the US except Alaska. Its total land area of more than 9 mln sq. km makes it the second largest country in the world. Canada's topography is dominated by the Canadian Shield, an ice-scoured area

covering half the country. Most of northern Canada has subarctic or arctic climates, with long cold winters lasting 8 to 11 month, short sunny summers, and little precipitation. In contrast, the populated south has a variety of climatological landscapes. The total population according to the census 1981 was about 24 mln people with the average population density of 2.8 per sq. km. English and French are the official languages of Canada and have equal status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all governmental institutions. Canada is a federation of 10_provinces and 2 northern territories. The federal Parliament is made up of the House of Commons and the Senate. The leader of the party that wins the largest number of seats in a newly elected House of Commons is