The Truman Doctrine Essay Research Paper The — страница 2

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have no territorial ambitions. That we only want peace, but we’ll fight for it! After these announcements the British revealed that they could no longer give aid to Turkey and Greece and that the U.S. must pick up the slack. This left Greece in extreme danger of toppling into Communist control. “If Greece fell? Turkey isolated in the Eastern Mediterranean, would eventually succumb?” Truman’s plan for peacetime aid – The Truman Doctrine – was unprecedented (a sum of more than $400 million) and he faced a Republican Congress that was unreceptive through which he had to pass his plan. Truman informed Congress of the troubles facing Italy, Germany, and France. They and other small, Middle-eastern countries faced threats from Communism. Congress came back with problems

found in Truman’s plan which included: The Greek government was corrupt and not democratic, and neither was Turkey. Turkey had been neutral during the war. Further, the President’s plan for aid paid no attention to Communism outside Europe. Even though, the bill passed on May 15, 1947. Truman added while signing the legislation into law: “We are guardians of a great faith We believe that freedom offers the best chance of peace and prosperity for all, and our desire for peace cannot be separated from our belief in liberty. We hope that in years ahead more and more nations will come to know the advantages of freedom and liberty. It is to this end that we have enacted the law I have now signed.” It was brought to Truman’s attention that Europe was by no means content in

their economic recovery. Britain was near bankruptcy, Italy, France, and Germany were plagued by a terrible by a terrible. More aid was needed to keep their democratic governments afloat. Therefore, as a result of the Truman Doctrine was the Marshall Plan. This came about when Truman appointed General Marshall as Secretary of State. In this position, he saw “Europe’s economic plight.” Marshall proposed a plan that would offer aid to all nations “West of the Urals.” (Truman, 355) This included the U.S.S.R. and her Eastern European neighbor nations. But they refused the aid. By March 1948, Congress had appropriated the first installment. Truman signed it into law on April 3, 1948. By it completion in 1952 it would provide more than $13 billion in aid to war-ravaged

Europe. This was a huge change in U.S. Foreign policy. We had gone from isolationists to internationalists. This Doctrine is indirect contrast to the Monroe Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine served as the U.S. Foreign policy for over 150 years. It essentially stated that the U.S. would not intervene in the World’s affairs as long as no one interfered with hers. With the Truman Doctrine, we completely reversed that role that had been briefly breached during the World Wars. Our new policy was one of Containment: To contain the spread of Communism to the states in which it presently inhabits. Our relationship with the U.S.S.R. after Truman’s declaration was in continuing deterioration. A major threat to our relationship was the Berlin Blockade of 1948. On June 24, 1948, the Soviets

enacted a total blockade on Berlin. The U.S. response was to airlift supplies into West Berlin. By its end 277,804 sorties delivered 2,325,809 tons of goods to Berlin – more than a ton a piece to every Berliner. On June 24, 1950 Truman was told that North Korea had invaded South Korea, or, in other words, Communism was spreading! The UN Security Council took a unanimous vote to declare war on North Korea. Truman quickly sent 10,000 troops from Japan to combine with the South Korean Army. Even together, they were hardly a match for the 90,000 strong North Koreans. General MacArthur was put in charge and surrendered a lot of space in order to buy time for reinforcements. Back in the U.S. the citizens were not seeing the value of killing their boys in Korea. Truman increased

military spending to finance the war reinforcements. With newly received reinforcements, MacArthur changed the tune of the war. MacArthur only briefly caused a problem. Later he was fired by Truman on insubordination charges. A cease fire was made in 1953. This reestablished the 38th parallel. During this war, the U.S. lost about 60,000 troops. What results did we get? No border changes, a small containment of Communism that probably would not have made much difference to the U.S. anyway. Only the death of Americans was gained. The next result of the Truman Doctrine was the Vietnam War. This was another Anti-Communist containment war. Ho Chi Minh had invaded South Vietnam. It began with the Gulf of Tonkin incident where Vietnamese Torpedo boats attacked U.S. destroyers. From