The Traditional Family Essay Research Paper Differences — страница 2
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centered on the implications of ‘taking time off’ to raise children from a women’s perspective. Surprisingly, little research has examined men who choose the role of PCG and how this decision impacts their career progress and perceptions of life when they return to paid work. Parents who reenter the workforce after taking time off to raise children may face certain challenges. They may have to be socialized into the work organization which involves both technical “on the job training” and the more informal transfer of the organizational culture and its informal norms and codes of conduct to the individual, as well as providing him or her with social cues and information necessary to interpret the formal environment (Hackman, 1976). There may be differences in income for reemployed individuals. Studies find that employment gaps were more damaging for men’s future income than women’s, although women with uninterrupted employment still had significantly lower incomes than men. Controlling for work experience, it was speculated that the damage to men’s future income was due to discrimination or deviating from the stereotyped image of a male manager with uninterrupted employment. These individuals may also be concerned that an employment gap may stunt their career progress. They may feel behind other people in the organization due to low visibility and involvement in a job for a period of time. According to Zedeck (1992), as employees ascend in the organization’s hierarchy, criteria for evaluation are increasingly vague, and the signals relied on are therefore visibility, collegiality, salience in discussions, and other visible signs of effort, organizational citizenship, presentability, and leadership. Perin (1990) discussed the importance of overtime and long hours as signals of both commitment and success in organizations. Schneer and Reitman (1990) also found that men’s career satisfaction decreased after work interruption. In short, the psychological task of balancing or reintegrating work and family roles may be very difficult. These considerations lead me to the tentative conclusion that individuals, particularly men, who have stayed at home rearing children are concerned that they will have a harder time pursuing a career upon reentry into the workforce. The notions of career and career success for parents who reenter the workforce may differ from parents involved in dual-career marriages, and such differences may exist between men and women who take on PCG responsibility. Additionally, the parenting experience and demographic factors, such as satisfaction with the PCG role and income, may affect such concerns about career.